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Profitable Small Scale Industries- Money making Business Ideas for Startup (when you don’t know what industry to start)-2nd Revised Edition

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Profitable Small Scale Industries- Money making Business Ideas for Startup (when you don’t know what industry to start)-2nd  Revised Edition

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9789381039922
Code: NI187
Pages: 520
Price: Rs. 975.00   US$ 100.00

Published: 2019
Publisher: NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES
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Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSME) have been playing an important role in the overall economic development of a country like India, where millions of people are unemployed or underemployed. The economic development of any country primarily depends upon the establishment of industries. MSME sector comprises 95 per cent of the total industrial units in the country.
The hunt for funding has been the bane of an entrepreneur’s existence from times of yore. Many abandon their dream to build, create, and innovate in the face of this difficult struggle without realising that a good business idea will eventually pool in the bounty-full once it has secured a place in the market.
Your idea will bring you your company, your company will bring you the people, and the people will bring you the market. A good idea has no monetary value, just a whole lot of bursting potential. Today, the World's most successful entrepreneurs like Dhiru Bhai Ambani and Karsanbhai Patel – Man behind NIRMA may hold the possibility of building pyramids out of notes, but none of them started at the top of the ladder. Facebook was created out of a Harvard dorm room at minimal cost and Microsoft was formed two years after Gates decided to drop out of college.

For an entrepreneur starting out, it makes good business sense to avoid ideas that require high capital investment in equipment, land, etc. Venturing into the manufacturing business requires to divide time and effort between making business plan, creating the product, and selling. It is best to venture into product areas that requires small to medium investment, which can be returned within   few years. If one want to start off on his own, this book provides some manufacturing business ideas with small and medium investment.

The major contents of the book are India Government Loan Schemes for Small Scale Businesses, Government Support for Innovation and Entrepreneurship in India, Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana, Packaging and Labeling, Products Packaging, Marketing, Onion Dehydration, Garlic Dehydration, Onion Pickle, Onion Chutney, Garlic Oil, Onion Powder, Ginger Oil, Ginger Powder, Ginger Paste, Tomato Pulp, Tomato Paste, Tomato Ketchup, Tomato Powder, Disposable Blood Bags, Disposable Masks, Disposable Surgical Catheters, Disposable Plastic Syringes, Plastic Cups, Disposable Banana Leaf Plate, Facial Tissue & Baby Wet Wipes, Urea Formaldehyde Resin Adhesive, Toothpaste Production, Gypsum Board, Surgical Absorbent Cotton, Glass Fibre, Complex Fertilizers, Activated Carbon from Wood, Biscuits, Candy, Chocolates, Milk Powder, Instant Noodles, Khakhra, Soft Drinks, Spices and Sample Plant Layouts.

If you ever had an idea that you want to turn into a profitable business endeavor, this book will be a mile stone for you.
Remember Dhirubhai Ambani said, “Ideas are no one’s monopoly Think big, think fast, think ahead.”

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Contents

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1. INTRODUCTION
Characteristics of Small-Scale Industries
Objectives of Small Scale Industries
Advantages of Small Scale Industries
Growth of Small Scale Industries
Steps to Starting a Business
1. Identify Your Business Opportunity
2. Build a Business Plan
3. Find Start-up Money
4. Name Your Business
5. Choose a Business Structure
6. Get Your Business License and Permits
7. Set Up & Determine Your Business Location
8. Get Business Insurance
9. Create an Accounting System
Registration of Small Scale Industries
Two Types of Registration are done in all States
Procedure for Registration
How to Apply
Procedure
Step 1: Provisional Small Scale Industry (SSI) Registration
Benefits of Provisional SSI Registration
Step 2: Start the Business
Step 3: Apply for Permanent SSI Registration
2. INDIA GOVERNMENT LOAN SCHEMES FOR
SMALL SCALE BUSINESSES
List of Government Loan Schemes for Small Business in India
1. The Credit Guarantee Fund Scheme for Micro and Small Enterprises
2. Credit Link Capital Subsidy Scheme for Technology Upgradation
3. Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI)
4. National Small Industries Corporation Limited (NSIC)
5. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)
6. Market Development Assistance Scheme for MSMEs
7. Technology and Quality Upgradation Support to MSMEs
8. Mini Tools Room and Training Centre Scheme
9. MUDRA Loan
3. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR INNOVATION
AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INDIA
4. PRADHAN MANTRI MUDRA YOJANA
Product / Offerings of MUDRA
Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY)
Micro Credit Scheme
Refinance Scheme for Banks
Women Enterprise Programme
Securitization of Loan Portfolio
Purpose of MUDRA Loan
Transport Vehicle
Community, Social & Personal Service Activities
Food Products Sector
Textile Products Sector / Activity
Business Loans for Traders and Shopkeepers
Equipment Finance Scheme for Micro Units
Activities Allied to Agriculture
Eligibility – Who are Eligible to Avail Loan Under Mudra Scheme?
Interest Rates of Mudra Bank Loan – Interest Rate
How to Apply for Mudra Loan – Process of Receiving Currency Loans
Step 1: Gathering Information and Choosing the Right Bank
Step 2: Preparing Documents and Submitting Applications
Checklist for Mudra Loan (Documents Required)
How to Apply for Bank Mudra Loan
Whom to Contact for Assistance?
5. PACKAGING AND LABELING
Functions of Packaging
6. PRODUCTS PACKAGING
Introduction
Definition of Food Packaging
Functions of Packaging Material
Packaging Materials for Tomato and its Products
Packaging of Tomato
Flexible Packaging
Forms of Flexible Packaging
Manufacturing Techniques
Plastics in Food Packaging
Use of Plastics in Food Packaging
Types of Plastics Used in Food Packaging
Types of Plastic Used in Packaging
Polyethylene
Polypropylene (PP)
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET or PETE)
Polyethylene Naphthalene Dicarboxylate (PEN)
Flexographic Printing
Digital Printing
Printing and Labelling of Rigid Plastic Containers
In-mould Labelling
Labelling
Dry Offset Printing
Silk Screen Printing
Heat Transfer Printing
Glass and Glass Container Manufacture
Melting
Container Forming
Design Parameters of Glass Containers
Surface Treatments
Hot End Treatment
Cold End Treatment
Low-Cost Production Tooling
Container Inspection and Quality
Conclusion
Precautions during Packing
7. MARKETING
Functions of Marketing
Promotional Techniques
The Product Concept
Some Characteristics of Market Segmentation
Organization for New-Product Development
Developing New Products
Planned Obsolescence
Product Line Relationships
Product Features
The Sales Process
8. ONION DEHYDRATION
Dehydrated Onion
Onion Varieties Suitable for Dehydration
Uses of Dehydrated Onions
Dehydration Practices for Onion
Solar Drying
Convective Air Drying
Fluidized Bed Drying
Microwave Drying
Infra Red Drying
Vacuum Drying
Freeze Drying
Osmotic Dehydration
Onion Dehydration Process
Processing Steps
Power Production and Energy Requirements
9. GARLIC DEHYDRATION
Drying
Methods of Drying
1. Hot Air Drying
2. Solar and Open Sun Drying
Experimental Setup
Design
Raw Material and Sample Preparation
Washing
Drying Process Flow Chart of Dehydrated Garlic
Equipment/Apparatus Used
Measurement of Variables
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity
Air Velocity
Solar Radiation
Initial Moisture Content (IMC)
Moisture Content during Drying Experiment
Equilibrium Moisture Content (E.M.C.)
Moisture Ratio (M.R.)
Drying Rate (D.R.)
Average Drying Rate (A.D.R.)
Quality Evaluation of Dehydrated Garlic
Rehydration Ratio, Coefficient of Rehydration
Comparison between Solar and Open Sun Drying
Freeze Drying
Fluidized Bed Drying
Dehydration Process
Dehydration Process Flow Diagram
Safety Precautions & Other Cares in Garlic Dehydration
10. ONION PICKLE
Introduction
Raw Material
Onion Pickle Manufacturing Process
Onion Pickle Process Flow Diagram
11. ONION CHUTNEY
Introduction
Manufacturing Process of Onion Chutney
Process Flow of Onion Chutney
12. GARLIC OIL
Introduction
Garlic Oil manufacturing Methods
Manufacturing Process
Removal of Undesired Material
Washing of Bulbs
Peeling
Crushing of Bulbs
A Steam Distillation
a. Hydrodistillation
b. Direct Steam Distillation
Advantages of Direct Steam Distillation
Disadvantage of Direct Steam Distillation
Inspection and Analyzing
Packing and Dispatching
Heart Diseases
Cholesterol Levels
Process Flow Diagram
Diabetes
Bodily Aches and Pains
Skin Problems & Other Infections
Other Ailments
13. ONION POWDER
Introduction
Varieties of Onion Powder
Chemical Specification
Nutritional Information
Uses of Onion Powder
Meat Rubs
Bloody Maty Drinks
Spice Mixes
Dressings
Manufacturing Process of Onion Powder
Process Flow Diagram
Health Benefits of Onion Powder
Low in Fat and Calories
Potassium
Magnesium
Calcium
Low in Sodium
14. GINGER OIL
Introduction
Solubility
Chemical Composition
Uses and Application
Packing and Marking
Manufacturing Process
Preparation of Raw Material
Cleaning
Milling
Soaking
Loading or Charging
Bleaching of Ginger
Practice of Distillation
Steam Distillation
End of Distillation
Treatment of the Volatile Oil
Treatment of the Distillation Water
Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram
Rectification of Essential Oils
Problems Relating to Steam Distillation
Environment Pollution and Effluent Treatment
15. GINGER POWDER
Introduction
Properties
Uses of Ginger Powder
Manufacturing Process of Ginger Powder
Process Flow Sheet
16. GINGER PASTE
Properties of Ginger Paste
Uses of Ginger Paste
Chemical & Physical Specification of Ginger
Manufacturing Process
Process Flow Diagram
17. TOMATO PULP
Introduction
Manufacturing Process of Tomato Pulp
Sorting
Washing and Trimming
Crushing
Pulping
Hot Process
Process Flow Diagram
18. TOMATO PASTE
Introduction
Raw Material Requirements
Manufacturing Process of Tomato Paste
Process Flow Diagram
19. TOMATO KETCHUP
Introduction
Uses of Tomato Ketchup
Ingredients Required
Process Description
Process Flow Diagram
20. TOMATO POWDER
Introduction
Uses & Applications
Procedure for Making Tomato Powder
Primary Method
Secondary Method
Process Flow Diagram
21. DISPOSABLE BLOOD BAGS
Introduction
Flexible PVC Blood Bags
Uses of Blood Bags
Properties of Disposable Blood Bags
Raw Material
Quality of the Raw Materials
1. Translucency so can Check it Full, and See Layers in Centrifuged Bags
2. Flexibility (Low Bending Stiffness) so can Process by Squeezing the Bag
3. Heat Resistance, so can Steam Sterilize Prior to Use
4. Materials Property-Melting Temperature
5. Must Not Burst in the Centrifuge, or Tear on Handling
6. Permeable to Oxygen, but not too Permeable to Water
7. Moderate Cost
8. Processing and Welding
9. PVC Plasticized Blood Bag sizes: 350 ml & 450 ml
Manufacturing Process
Flow Sheet Diagram
Bag Making
Tube Making
Blood Bag Forming Machine
Suppliers of Plant & Machinery
Raw Materials Addresses
22. DISPOSABLE MASKS
Introduction
Uses & Applications
Properties
Manufacturing Process of Disposable Surgical Masks
Sterilization
Flow Diagram for Disposable Surgical Mask
Machinery Images for Masks
Mask Making Machine
Surgical Mask Sewing Machine
Mask Blank Machine
Plant & Machinery Suppliers
23. DISPOSABLE SURGICAL CATHETERS
Introduction
Uses & Applications
Common Features of Central Venous Catheter (CVC)
Manufacturing Process of Catheters
Process Flow Diagram of Catheter
Catheter Production Equipments
Plant & Machinery Suppliers
Suppliers of Raw Materials
24. DISPOSABLE PLASTIC SYRINGES
Introduction
Uses
Necessity of Disposable Syringes
Parts of a Disposable Syringe
Nozzle
Piston
Raw Material Used for Manufacturing Disposable Syringes
Polyolefin - (Polyethylene and Polypropylene)
Polyethylene
Polypropylene
Polystyrene
Natural Rubber
Synthetic Polymeric Material
Silicone Oil
Leakage Test
Sterility
Packing
Outer Container
Marking of Outer Containers
Manufacturing Process
Process Description
1st Stage of Process
2nd Stage of Production
3rd Stage of Process
4th Stage of Production
Process Flow Diagram
Assembling Operation and Packing
Machinery Images
Single Barrel Moulds
Syringe Plunger Moulds
Injection Moulding Machine
Disposable Syringe Packaging Machine
Storage of Sterilized Articles
Test for Detection of Aerobic and Anaerobic Organism
Media
Medium for Anaerobic Organism
Medium for Aerobic Organism
A. Benzathine Penicillin, Benzyl Penicillin
B. Other Antibiotic
C. Test for Detection of Fungi Medium
Suppliers of Raw Material
25. PLASTIC CUPS
Introduction
Plastic Cups
Manufacturing Method
Thermoforming
Heating
Forming
Cooling
Trimming
Machine Type
Application of Thermoforming Technique
Raw Material
Steps
Polypropylene Characteristics
Compatibility of Polypropylene with Common Products
Properties of Poly Propylene
Specific Gravity
Mechanical Properties
Electricals
Chemical Resistance
Specification of Thermoforming Machines
Moulds
Glass
Cups
Plates
Spoons
Printing on Polypropylene
Printing on Cups, Glasses and Plates
Roto Gravure Printing
For Multicolor Printing
Flow Diagram for Disposable Plastic Cups
Plant and Machinery Details
Thermoforming Machine
Specifications
Thermoformable Extrusion Line
Mono & Multilayer Thermoformable Sheet Lines
Specifications
Plastic Cup thermoforming Machine
Usage
Hydraulic Automatic Cup Making Machine
Parameter
Functions and Characteristics
Complete Line: Extrusion + Cup Making Machine
Plastic Sheet Extruder
A. Main Parameters
B. Configuration and Specification
1. Main Extruder: one
2. Non-stop Fast Screen Changer With Double-sieve: one set
3. Die-Head
Calendar Roll Stack: one
4. Thermostat System: Two sets (Only use for making PS sheet)
5. Air Cooling Stand: one
6. Trimming Unit: one
7. Haul Off Unit: one
8. Single-shaft Winder (One set)
9. Electronic Control Cabinet: one set
10. Waste sheet re-winder: one set
Main Technical Data
Feature
Key Electric Components
Assistant Machines
Automatic Cup Stacking Machine
Usage
Main Technical Parameter
Screw Air Compressor
Industrial Chiller (Air Cooled)
Model Specification
Thermoforming/Vacuum Forming Sheet Extrusion Line
PP/PS Specification
Multi-Laye Cp-Extrusion Sheet Line
Technical Specification
Features
HIPS / ABS / PC / PMMA / PS Extrusion Sheet Line
Technical Specification
Suppliers of Plant & Machinery
Raw Material Suppliers
26. DISPOSABLE BANANA LEAF PLATE
Introduction
Function
Properties of Banana Leaf Plates
Use and Application of Banana Leaf Plates
Utility
Area of Usage
Raw Material
Banana Tree/Leaves
Manufacturing Process of Banana Leaf Plates
Process Steps
Description
Flow Diagram
Machinery Description
Leaf Plate Making Machine
Description
Materials
Construction
Working
Leaf Plate Making Machine
Machinery Details
Suppliers of Plant and Machinery
Suppliers of Raw Material
27. FACIAL TISSUE & BABY WET WIPES
Introduction
What is a Tissue Paper?
Properties
Production
Applications
Hygienic Tissue Paper
Facial Tissues
Paper Towels
Wrapping Tissue
Toilet Tissue
Table Napkins
Facial Tissue
Properties
Manufacturing Process for Facial Tissues
Steps
Pulping and Retting
Pressing
Creping
Reeling and Cutting
Uses of Facial Tissue
Size
Effects
Wet Wipes
Introduction
Production
Uses
Baby Wipes
Cleansing Pads
Industrial Wipes
Pain Relief
Personal Hygiene
Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram for Facial Tissue & Wet Wipes
Pet Care
Healthcare
Facial Tissue and Wet Wipes Machine Details
Facial Tissue Machine
Specifications
Professional Facial Tissue Machine
Specification
Wallet Pocket Facial Tissue Machine
Specification
Full-Automatic Box-drawing Facial Tissue Machine
Descriptions
Function and Features
Technical Data
The Name of Spare Part of the Machine
Specification of Raw Material
Industrial Facial Tissue Making Machine
Supplier of Plant and Machinery
Suppliers of Raw Material
28. UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN ADHESIVE
Uses of Urea Formaldehyde Resin
Properties of Urea Formaldehyde Resin
Raw Material
Process Description
Process Flow Diagram for Urea Resin Adhesive Plant
Machinery Required Equipment
29. TOOTHPASTE PRODUCTION
Toothpaste Composition and Ingredient Functionality
Typical Toothpaste Ingredients
Process Description
Storing and Filling the Finished Toothpaste
Process Flow Diagram
Machinery Required
30. GYPSUM BOARD
Characteristics of Gypsum Board
Uses
Raw Material
Gypsum Board Constituents
Process Description
Transportation
Installation
Flow Diagram
Machinery Required
Gypsum Drying Section
Gypsum Calcining Section
Forming and Drying Section
Utility Section
31. SURGICAL ABSORBENT COTTON
Properties of Absorbent Cotton
Raw Material
Process Description Based on Before Carding Method
(1) Opening and Cleaning
(2) Filling
(3) Bleaching
(4) Hydro-extracting
(5) Opening, Drying and Reserving
(6) Carding
(7) Winding, Cutting and Packing
Process Flow Sheet for Absorbent Cotton Making
Machinery Required
32. GLASS FIBRE
Types of Glass Fibre
Properties
Uses
Raw Materials
Process Description
Process Flow Diagram
Schematic Diagram of Direct Melt Process for Continuous Filaments
Schematic Diagram of Marble Melt Process for Continuous Filaments
Machinery Required
33. COMPLEX FERTILIZERS
Complex Fertilizer for Vegetables
Characteristics
Component
Complex Fertilizer for Beans
Characteristics
Component
Briquette Complex Fertilizer for Forest
Characteristics
Complex Fertilizer for Field Crops
Characteristics
Component
Complex Fertilizer for Horticulture
Characteristics
Component
Complex Fertilizer Manufacturing Description of NP & NPK
Granulator
Drying
Screening
Cooling
Polishing Screens
Cyclone Separators
Scrubbing Section
Process Flow Diagram
Equipments in Flow Chart
34. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM WOOD
Uses of Activated Carbon
Typical Properties of Activated Carbon
Raw Materials
Manufacturing Process
Processing Steps
Flow Diagram
Machinery Required
35. BISCUITS
Uses & Applications
Basic Raw Material for Biscuits
Manufacturing Process
Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram
36. CANDY
Uses of Candy
Raw Material for Candy
Sugar
Corn Syrup/Glucose Syrup
Water
Properties of High-Boiled Candy
Candy Manufacturing Process
Process Flow Diagram
37. CHOCOLATES
Uses
Composition of Fermented Cocoa Beans
Raw Material
Sweet Dark Chocolate
Semi-Sweet or Bittersweet Dark Chocolate
Milk Chocolate
White Chocolate
Nutritional Information of Milk Chocolate
Formulations
Dark Chocolate
Milk Chocolate
Manufacturing Process
1. Roasting and Winnowing the Cocoa
2. Grinding the Cocoa Nibs
3. Blending Cocoa liquor and molding Chocolate
Milk Chocolate
White Chocolate
Plain Dark Chocolate
Process Flow Diagram
38. MILK POWDER
Uses of Milk Powder
Composition of Milk-Powder
Property of Milk Powder
Milk Powder Production Process
Separation/Standardization
Preheating
Evaporation
Spray Drying
Packaging and Storage
Process Flow Diagram
39. INSTANT NOODLES
Nutrition Value of Instant Noodles
Manufacturing Process
Mixing
Sheeting
Cutting/Slitting and Waving
Steaming and Molding
Frying/Drying
Packaging
Process Flow Diagram
40. KHAKHRA
Uses and applications
Nutrition Facts of Khakhra
Manufacturing Process of Khakhra
Process Flow Diagram
41. SOFT DRINKS
Ready-to-drink Products
Concentrated Soft Drinks
Properties
Manufacturing Process
Packing
Cold-filling
Process Flow Diagram
42. SPICES
Uses & Applications
General Manufacturing Procedure
Process Flow Diagram
43. SAMPLE PLANT LAYOUTS

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Sample Chapters


(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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ONION DEHYDRATION

Dehydration, is removal of water from a substance or

system or chemical compound, or removal of the

elements of water, in correct proportion, from a chemical

compound or the compounds. The elements of water may be

removed from a single molecule or from more than molecule,

as in the dehydration of alcohol, one which may yield ethlone

by loss of the elements of water from each molecule or ethyl

ether by loss of the elements of water from two molecules,

which then join to form a new compound.

In the food processing field, dehydration is sometimes

described as the removal of 85% or more of water from a food

substance, by exposure to thermal energy by various means.

Thermal dehydration reduces volume of the product,

increases shelf-life, and lowers transportation cost. There is

no clearly defined line of demarcation between drying and

dehydrating, and latter sometimes being considered as a

supplement of drying. Usually, the direct use of solar energy,

as in the drying of raisin, lay etc. is not lumped with

dehydrating. The term dehydration also is not generally

applied to situations where there is a loss of water as the

result of evaporation.

Dried onion is now available in market in the powdered

or kibled form. The composition of the fresh and dried forms

is given. The kibbled form has moisture content of about 10%

microscopically onion powders shows abundant parent

chymatous cells.

Dehydrated Onion

Processed and value added products are gaining

importance in the worldwide markets. According to Singh

onion has 6% share in the overall production of vegetables

in India and about 93% of the total export of fresh vegetables

from India. Onion is mainly exported in the form of

dehydrated onion, canned onion and onion pickle. Free water

is removed from the vegetables during the drying process so

that microorganisms do not survive and reproduce.

Simultaneously, the solids such as sugar and organic acids

are concentrated thereby exerting osmotic pressure to further

inhibit the microorganisms. Drying process involves the

application of heat to vaporize water and removal of moist

air from the dryer.

Dehydrated onions are considered as a potential product

in world trade and India is the second largest producer of

dehydrated onions in the world. There is a large demand of

dehydrated onion in the European countries only.

Onions are generally dried from an initial moisture

content of about 86% (wb) to 7% (wb) or less for efficient

storage and processing. Dehydrated onions in the form of

flakes or powder are in extensive demand in several parts of

the world, for example UK, Japan, Russia, Germany,

Netherlands and Spain.

Fluidized Bed Drying

Several researchers have studied fluidized bed drying of

onion for making onion flakes, slices and powder. Problems

such as scorching or the agglomeration of onion slices during

tray, tunnel or conveyor belt drying were resolved during

fluidized bed dehydration techniques, in which contact

between onion pieces was kept to a minimum.

Mazza and LeMaguer dehydrated the yellow globe type

onions with 1.5 mm slice thickness at drying air temperatures

of 40, 50 and 65°C with air flow rates of 5.5, 8.1 and 10.3

m3/min in a vibro fluidizer and discussed the possible

diffusion mechanism. They showed that percent retention of

flavour such as 1-propanethiol, methyl propyl disulphide, dipropyl

disulphide and 1-propanol was almost linearly related

to moisture content. The final retention of volatiles increased

with increase in dehydration temperature. High temperature

led to a more rapid formation of the dry layer and lowered

the diffusion of the flavour compound at the evaporating

surface.

POWER PRODUCTION AND ENERGY REQUIREMENTS

The energy requirements for the operation of a dryer will

vary due to differences in outside temperature, dryer loading,

and requirement for the final moisture content of the product.

A single-line Proctor dryer handling 4500 kg of raw product

per hour (680 - 820 kg finished) will require about 530 GJ/

day, or for an average season of 150 to 180 days, 80 to 95 TJ

using approximately 35 MJ/kg of dry products. This is

estimated to cost 11 cents per kg of finished product.

The energy is provided by natural gas or geothermal fluid;

air is passed directly through the gas flame or geothermal

heat exchanger in stages A and B, and over steam coils in

stages C and D. The steam coils are necessary to prevent

turning of the onions in the last two stages.

 

ONION PICKLE

Pickling is the process by which fresh fruits and vegetables

are preserved and with the addition of salt, chilly and

spices, a tasty preparation known as “Pickles” is made. Pickles

are also good appetizers and digestive agents. There are

several varieties of pickles and they are consumed throughout

the year by people from all walks of life. Pickling onions is

deceptively simple and devilishly fast. Whether you’ve got a

bunch of onions and want to preserve them for a later date

or simply want to dress up an otherwise ordinary dish, they

are incredibly versatile. With a little bit of acid, sugar, and

spices, the lowly onion is about to go interstellar.

Pickling is preserving a food with acid and salt. The key

to safe pickling is making sure that the acid is high enough

to kill any microorganism that can lead to spoilage and illness.

All pickle products must be heat processed to destroy

yeast, mold, and bacteria that cause spoilage and to inactivate

enzymes that might affect color, flavor, or texture of the

product. Heat processing also ensures a good, airtight seal.

There are two types of pickles:

• Brined (fermented) pickles require several weeks of

“curing” at room temperature. During this period,

colors and flavors change. Acid is produced as lactic

acid bacteria grow.

• Quick (unfermented) pickles are made in 1 or 2 days

Raw Material

There are six basic types of ingredients used for pickle

making. The ingredients include acids, flavorings, colorants,

preservatives, and stabilizers that make up the liquid, or

liquor, in which the pickle is sold. Many of the ingredients

are only available at certain times of the year, so steps have

to be taken to use fresh materials.

Acetic acid (vinegar) is the primary ingredient used in

pickle manufacturing. After water, it makes up the bulk of

the pickle liquor and contributes significantly to the flavor

of the pickle giving it a sour taste. Additionally, it also has a

preservative effect and is nontoxic. Vinegar is derived from

naturally occurring sugars or starches through a two-step

fermentation process. Starch is converted to sugar, which is

then yeast fermented to form alcohol. The alcohol is exposed

to an acetobacteria, which converts it to vinegar. Vinegar can

be obtained from many sources and each one has a slightly

different taste.

ONION CHUTNEY

Introduction

Chutney is a family of condiments associated with South

Asian cuisine made from a highly variable mixture of

spices, vegetables, or fruit.

As with other condiments such as relish or mustard,

chutneys are based on a wide range of recipes and

pr                     eparation methods, they vary widely by geography, they can

range from a wet to dry—or coarse to fine—and they can be

combined with a wide variety of foods or used for dipping.

Chutneys are made from a combination of fruit and

vegetables with vinegar, sugar, spices and salt. They are an

excellent way of using up a glut of fruit and vegetables,

particularly as the flavour improves with storage. They should

be left to mature in a cool, dark place for approximately one

month before consumption. Chutney and relishes seem to be more highly spiced when

first made, and will mellow on storage.

Spices commonly used in chutneys include fenugreek,

coriander, cumin and asafoetida (hing). Other prominent

ingredients and combinations include cilantro, capsicum,

mint (coriander and mint chutneys are often called hari

chutney, wherehariis Hindi for “green”), Tamarind or Imli,

Sooth (or saunth, made with dates and ginger), Coconut,

Onion, Prune, Tomato, Red chili, Green chili, mango

Lime(made from whole, unripe limes), garlic, coconut, peanut,

Dahi, Green tomato, Dhaniya pudina (cilantro and mint),

Peanut (shengdana chutney in Marathi), Ginger, Yogurt, red

chili powder, Tomato onion chutney, Cilantro mint coconut

chutney and apricot.

ONION POWDER

Introduction

Onion is one of major bulb crop grown in India which

presently attracting attention of all persons due to rise

in prices. The price is directly related to supply-Demand of

the commodity. An Indian farmer normally pays more

attention to grow those crops which are fetched very good

market prices during last season. To get the very good prices

during present season, many farmers switch to grow Onion

crop due to which supply in the market increases many fold

and market glut fetches very low prices to farmers commodity

such as onions. To stabilize the prices of fruits and vegetables

and reduce the post harvest losses, drying of onion in form

flakes and onion powder is adopted.

 

Onion powder is made by dehydrating onions and

grinding them down to a fine powder. It is a common

seasoning. Onion powder replaces the taste of onions when

used in recipes but it is not as pungent as fresh onion. Onion

powder is a very common component of spice mix. The powder

can be combined with other herbs and spices to create rubs,

spice mixes, drinks and dressings. Applications include pasta,

pizza, and grilled chicken. Onion salt is simply salt plus onion

powder. (Pre-made products usually include an anti-caking

agent.). It is a common component of seasoned salt. Onion

powder, a spice made from ground dehydrated onions is used

for seasoning in cooking. Many cooks of the world prefer onion

powder to fresh onions because it is easier to handle, savestime and

 require no chopping or special treatment. Prepared from finely ground dehydrated onions,

they contain very strong smell and last for a longer duration, if properly

packaged and stored. Since bulb onions contain much of the

flavor and distinctive aroma of the onion, they are widely used

for preparing onion powder. Onion powder is a perfect

condiment for taco mix, chili, barbeque rubs, salad dressings,

dips, marinades, and as an addition to hamburgers.

Rectification of Essential Oils

Rectification with water vapours is the older of the two

methods. Report employed for this purpose is usually

spherical made of copper, heavily lined with tin, and heated

with a steam. To prevent coloring of the oil by contact with

metal, the gooseneck and condenser should be made of pure

tin or of heavily tinned copper. Condenser and oil separator

should be installed at such a height that if it seems desirable,

the distillation water could return automatically into the

retort during distillation.

Water is poured into the retort to a level of about 4 or 5

line above must be retained through the distillation. Flatbottomed

steam jackets are therefore preferable for the

rectification of Volatile oils. A steam coil provided with many

small holes and inserted close to the bottom of the retort,

serves for the direct heating with live steam and also for

steaming out (clearing) the still often completion of the

operation steaming out is usually preceded by a washing with

hot water, soap or alkali solution or with volatile solvents the

speed of rectification is influenced by several factors. If the

distillation waters should return automatically into the retort,

the speed might be limited by excess pressure developing with

in retort, insect, this might altogether prevent the distillation

water from returning automatically into the retort.

If the distillates should be absolutely colorless,

rectification must be carried out very slowly, otherwise, very

fine droplets, often invisible in the vapors are carried into the

condenser and oil separator and color the distillate.

GINGER POWDER

The Ginger, whole shall be the rhifume of zingiber officinale

Rose inpieces irreguler in stape and site not less than 20

m.m. is length or in small cut pieces, pale brower in colour

and fibrous with peel not entirely removed, washed and dried

in the sun. The material mag be garbled by removing pieces

that are too ligher and it may also be lime bleached. The dried

shitomes may also be gronned into powder.

Pure lime shall be used in case of bleaching ginger. The

material shall be size sum added colours.

The ginger, whole may be groded before packaging. There

shall be six grades of ginger whole. The designation of the

grade and their requirements are.

1. Garblod, non bleached Calicut.

2. Ungarbled non bleached Calicut: pale brown in colour

fibrous with feel not entirely removed.

3. Garbled non bleached cochin: in pieces irregular inshape

and size, pale brown in colour fibrous with peal not

entirely removed.

4. Garbled bleached cochin: In pieces irregular in shape and

size, colour fibrous with peel not entirely removed, lime

bleached, light pieces removed by garbling.

5. Ungarbled bleached cochin: In pieces irregular in shape

and fibrous with peel not entirely removed, lime bleached.

GINGER PASTE

Ginger is one of the most important vegetables, which is

produced by cultivation process. It is one of the agrobase

products, which has good commercial value as well as

industrial value. It is basically used mostly in all of the houses

as spices. In India there are few states in which it is largely

produced. Mostly ginger producing states are Meghalaya &

Himachal Pradesh.

Ginger can be preserved by food preservation process. It

is processed by making paste and sterilised to keep it for long

time. For making ginger paste, there is basic plant

machineries required, are grader, screening paste making

machine, steriliser, automatic filling, weight and packing

machine etc. It is necessary to store ginger for 6 months for

running the plant throughout the year otherwise it is

necessary to select other food processing items, so that plant

can be run throughout the year. There is good quality control

laboratory necessary for making good products for increasing

the self -life of product. There is good printed packaging

material, require for attracting customer. There is pollution,

produced from the plant, it can be solved by proper

precautions. There is fair market growth, new entrepreneur

may be successful by his hard work ship and by his marketing

intelligency. There is no necessity of importing of raw material

as well as plant and machineries. Technology of ginger paste

making also available in India.

Properties of Ginger Paste

1. It has bright yellowish colour.

2. It should have good agreeable ginger flavour.

3. It should be neutral in nature.

4. It should be free from microorganism.

5. It should have pasty in nature.

6. It should be store minimum for 6 months

7. It should contents around T.S.S. 60-70%

TOMATO PASTE

Introduction

Tomatoes are the most popular vegetable in the home

garden. Tomatoes are widely grown in all parts of the

world. They are available in a variety of sizes, shapes, and

colors—including red, yellow, orange, and pink. Sizes vary

from the bite-sized cherry tomatoes to the giant beefsteak

varieties. Tomatoes may be round, oblate (fruit are flattened

at the top and bottom), or pear-shaped. Tomatoes are low in

calories and a good source of vitamin C and antioxidants.

With their rich flavor and mild acidity, tomatoes have worked

their way into thousands of recipes.

Tomato, like other vegetables/fruits is a perishable

commodity and has a shorter shelf life in normal temperature.

Therefore, problems are faced in the supply chain due ton

on-existence of a cold chain system in the country which

results in losses of product and drastic price variations.

Tomato Paste provides a way out with extremely positive

outcome both commercially and financially. Indeed, tomato

consumption by the food processing industry revolves around

the availability of user friendly intermediate products like

tomato paste, puree, ketchup and sauces.

Tomato paste is a thick paste that is made by cooking

tomatoes for several hours to reduce moisture, straining them

to remove the seeds and skin and cooking them again to

reduce them to a thick, rich concentrate. Tomato paste is a

concentrated tomato juice or pulp without seeds and skin

containing not less than 25% tomato solid. It is used as an

ingredient in various types of sauces, canned fish, processed

beanes, and related products.

Products, such as tomato paste have potential demand

with local fruit/vegetable processors as well as the retail

market. Establishment of tomato processing facilities in the

country can contribute in reducing the dependence of local

industry on imported tomato paste. Tomato paste and puree

are commonly consumed commodities in every household.

It is liked by one and all because of its sweet sour taste.

The concentration comes to 33% total solids content when

total solids comes at 33% concentration then it is pass

through PHE at 121°C for 10 seconds and store it in the

holding tank. Form the holding tank it is filled in the bottles/

cans aseptically and capped the bottles. Then labeled on the

bottles. Bottles are checked and then packed it the corrugated

boxes. Store in the store room and market the products. Yield

of tomato concentrate will be 75% on the base of tomatoes

weight.

TOMATO POWDER

Introduction

Tomato powder is made from tomatoes which can be used

to add tomato flavoring to various dishes. This product

is made by turning fresh tomatoes into a slurry and spray

drying the slurry. With spray drying, hot gas is forced through

a liquid mixture, creating a fine powder of uniform

consistency. The consistency of the powder can be adjusted

by making small adjustments to the spray nozzle as

necessary. The result is a highly concentrated powder which

usually has a dull red color which is sometimes enhanced

with coloring because people expect it to be bright red.

Tomato powder is as a base for tomato paste. The powder

keeps longer than most tomato paste, and allows people to

mix up exactly as much as they need for a fresh, clear flavor.

Tomato paste is used in a variety of sauces and soups,

especially in Italian cuisine. Tomato powder can also be used

to make tomato soups, or to fortify broths and pasta sauces

if they have a weak tomato flavor and a stronger one is

desired.

Many dishes can also benefit from a small sprinkle of

tomato powder to make their flavors pop a bit more. Especially

in the winter when it can be difficult to obtain fresh fruits

and vegetables, people may enjoy the summery flavor of fresh

tomatoes when it’s added to various dishes

 

DISPOSABLE BLOOD BAGS

Introduction

Blood bag is a disposable bio-medical device used for

collection, storage, transportation and transfusion of

human blood and blood components. The system consists of

a single or multiple bags connected with tubing, needle,

needle cover, clamp etc. The Blood Bags are made of plasticmaterial,

which are compatible with blood.

components in a more sterile manner and safer transfusion

of components. This has led to increasingly wider use of blood

component therapy than whole blood use, thus enabling more

effective use of the scarce donor blood that is available.

Though, the incidences of reported toxic problems

resulting from plasticizer migration during transfusions are

rare. Plasticizer migration from PVC medical devices has been

an area of concern for the last few decades due to the large

consumption of the polymer in its plasticized form.

As the unplasticized PVC is generally hard and brittle,

addition of DEHP (low molecular weight additive, also known

as di-octyl phthalate is a non toxic chemical with high versatility

and low cost), facilitates processing operations such as sheet

and tube extrusion and injection moulding.

Still, these compounds possess high mobility and are

known to migrate from the plastics into the surrounding

medium or environment such as food or blood. National

Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, USA organized

several international symposia on phthalate acid esters which

reviewed many aspects of these substances including their

metabolism, toxicity and methods for their detection in the

environment and biological materials. Currently DEHP

continues to be the plasticizer of choice.

Uses of Blood Bags

1. Blood Bags have successfully replaced the use of glass

bottles for

• Collection storage,

• Transportation

• Transfusion of blood and blood components.

2. Since bottles require exhaustive cleaning, rinsing and

autoclaving procedures and there are chances of

breakage at any stage, Disposable PVC blood bags

have become the choice of the present era.

3. Further, use of disposable bags eliminates the

possibility of any contamination.

Quality of the Raw Materials

1. Translucency so can Check it Full, and See Layers in

Centrifuged Bags

Materials property - translucency: Plastics, which are

electrical insulators, can be transparent (if a single phase

glass) or translucent (if 2-phase semi-crystalline with light

scattering). Thin films scatter less light than thick mouldings,

so appear more transparent.

There must be no added pigments. Thermoplastics do not

need pigments, but rubbers often need mineral fillers (carbon

black, etc) for strength. Silicone rubber can be transparent.

2. Flexibility (Low Bending Stiffness) so can Process by

Squeezing the Bag

It should only require a small force to bend the bag wall.

3. Heat Resistance, so can Steam Sterilize Prior to Use

The most common sterilization method is by steam (in

an autoclave at 10 bar pressure) at 121°C. The alternative is

the more expensive radiation sterilization.

FACIAL TISSUE & BABY WET WIPES

Baby wet wipes, facial wet tissues and toilet paper are

basically hygienic personnel care product. These are

basically made by using tissue papers. Basic raw materials

used tissue papers, liquid soap and glycerin. Basic plant and

machineries required, rollers strand with slittering machine.

Rolls are slitted according to size and dimension and then

liquid detergent and other solvents are spread over the tissue

paper to make wetting and then it make rolled form and pack

it in the close pack with one side opening lid. Packing

materials are made by using polymer resin and labeled by

printed-paper. In the manufacturing process there is very

negligible amount pollution obtained, which can be easily

controlled. It has very good market demand.

What is a Tissue Paper?

Tissue paper or simply tissue is a lightweight paper or,

light crêpe paper. Tissue can be made both from virgin and

recycled paper pulp. Very exacting properties are generally

required; for, though it is very light, it must be opaque, free

of blemishes, pin holes, light spots and so on; and whether

of the readily combustible variety or not, it must burn free of

all objectionable odors.

The paper as heavily loaded with chalk (calcium carbonate

or other similar filters primarily with the object of improving

its combustion characteristics. The extent of loading may be

judged from the fact that most grades of tissues show upto

30% of ash, equivalent to 35% to 40% added. The tissue may

also be light sized with rosin and alum, at times, although

not very frequently. Mostly tissue is made in weights ranging

from 8 to 25 grams per square meter, though the average

weights are, unloaded laid or wove 12-14 gms; and loaded,

laid or wove 16-18 gms.

Applications

Hygienic Tissue Paper

Hygienic tissue paper is commonly used for facial tissue

(paper handkerchiefs), napkins, bathroom tissue and

household towels. Paper has been used for hygiene purposes

for centuries, but tissue paper as we know it today was not

produced in USA before the mid-1940s. In Western Europe large

scale industrial production started in the beginning of 1960s.

Paper Towels

Paper towels are the second largest application for tissue paper in

 the consumer sector. This type of paper has usually

a basis weight of 20 to 24 g/m2. Normally such paper towels

are two-ply. This kind of tissue can be made from

100% chemical pulp to 100% recycled fiber or a combination

of the two. Normally, some long fiber chemical pulp is

included to improve strength.

 

WET WIPES

A wet wipe, also known as a wet towel, or a moist

towelette, is a small moistened piece of paper or cloth that

often comes folded and individually wrapped for convenience.

Wet wipes are used for cleaning purposes, like personal

hygiene or household cleaning.

 

Wet wipes are produced as air-laid paper where the fibers

are carried and formed to the structure of paper by air. They

are moistened with water or other liquids like isopropyl

alcohol depending on the applications. The paper might be

treated with softeners, lotions or added perfume to get the

right properties or “feeling”. The finished wet wipes are folded

and put in pocket size package or a box dispenser.

 

Baby Wipes

• Baby wipes are wet wipes used to cleanse the sensitive

skin of infants. These are saturated with solutions

anywhere from gentle cleansing ingredients to alcohol

based ‘cleaners’. Baby wipes are typically sold in

plastic tubs that keep the cloths moist and allow for

easy dispensing.

• Wet wipes have become a standard part of diaper

changing kits. They can be bought in several different

pack counts (ranging up to 80 or more sheets per

pack), and come with dispensing mechanisms.

• Many green-minded parents, or those looking to save

extra money, are using washable baby wipes. These

are typically small squares of material (cotton, bamboo

or fleece) that can be pre-soaked ready to use, or wet

as required. Because they don’t contain chemicals or

artificial fragrances like most disposable wipes, they

are very kind and gentle on the skin. They are often

reported to be more effective at removing solids from

the skin because of their textured nature.

 

UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN ADHESIVE

 

Urea-formaldehyde resin, is a class of synthetic resins

obtained by chemical combination of urea (a solid crystal

obtained from ammonia) and formaldehyde (a highly reactive

gas obtained from methane). Urea-formaldehyde resins are

used mostly as adhesives for the bonding of plywood,

particleboard, and other structured wood products.

In industrial production, urea resins are made by the

condensation of formaldehyde and urea in an aqueous

solution, using ammonia as an alkaline catalyst. The

condensation reaction gives a colourless, syrupy solution that

can be spray-dried to a powder for later use in coatings or

adhesives; it can also be mixed with cellulose filler to produce

powders for molding into solid objects. Under the influence

of heat and pressure, the resin, at this point made up largely

of low-molecular-weight intermediate polymers or pre

polymers, is cured to its final state, which consists of a threedimensional

network of interlinked polymers.

 

Uses of Urea Formaldehyde Resin

Urea formaldehyde is the very common chemical and is

mostly used because of its chemical properties. Examples are

textiles, paper, foundry sand molds, wrinkle resistant fabrics,

cotton blends, rayon, corduroy, etc. also used to glue wood

together. Urea formaldehyde is mostly used when producing

electrical appliances casing also desk lamps.

It is widely chosen as an adhesive because of its property

of high reactivity, wonderful performance and low price.

 

Properties of Urea Formaldehyde Resin

• It has a very high tensile strength.

• Urea formaldehyde has the property of flexural

modulus.

• Has the property of heat distortion temperature.

• Has the capacity of low water absorption.

• It has the property of mould shrinkage.

• Has a property of high surface hardness.

• It can be elongated at break

• It is volume resistance in nature.

 

TOOTHPASTE PRODUCTION

Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used, with a

toothbrush, to clean and maintain the aesthetics and

health of teeth. Toothpaste serves as an abrasive that aids

in removing the dental plaque and food from the teeth, assists

in suppressing halitosis, and delivers active ingredients such

as fluoride or xylitol to help prevent tooth and gum disease.

Most of the cleaning is achieved by the mechanical action of

a toothbrush, and not by the toothpaste. Salt and sodium

bicarbonate (baking soda) are among materials that can be

substituted for commercial toothpaste.

Toothpastes are complex mixtures of abrasives

and surfactants; antiquaries agents, such as fluoride;

tartar control ingredients, such as tetra sodium

pyrophosphate and methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride

copolymer; pH buffers; humectants (to prevent dry-out and

increase the pleasant mouth feel); and binders, to provide

consistency and shape. Binders keep the solid phase properly

suspended in the liquid phase to prevent separation of the

liquid phase out of the toothpaste. They also provide body to

the dentifrice, especially after extrusion from the tube onto

the toothbrush.

 

The abrasives found in toothpaste function as polishing

agents aiding the physical brushing during application.

Abrasives also participate secondarily in the building of

toothpaste rheology. Commonly used toothpaste abrasives

include silica, calcium carbonate and calcium phosphates.

Polyols such as sorbitol, xylitol, and glycerin improve

consistency and serve as humectants that prevent moisture

loss from toothpaste formulations. Sorbitol and xylitol have

the additional function of acting as secondary or in some

cases primary sweeteners.

The surfactant, typically sodium lauryl sulfate, acts as a

foaming agent, although many toothpastes include sodium

lauroyl sarcosinate and cocamido propyl betaine. The foaming

action facilitates the removal of debris from the oral cavity.

 

GYPSUM BOARD

Gypsum board, also known as “drywall” or “plaster board,”

consists of a core of gypsum surrounded with a paper

covering. Several varieties of gypsum board products are

available; each is comprised of a specially formulated gypsum

plaster mix and facing paper specifically developed for the

intended application. These gypsum board products include

regular gypsum wallboard, moisture-resistant gypsum board,

and type-X fire resistant gypsum board.

Gypsum board is made of gypsum, which consists of the

core of the board and the both sides of the gypsum core are

covered and adhered with paper, and is widely used as a

construction material. It is widely used as construction

materials mainly for interior finishing like partition, walls,

ceiling and acoustic boards. Major raw materials are gypsum

and hard board papers. The plant can be categorizes as smallscale

industry.

 

Characteristics of Gypsum Board

The Characteristics of gypsum board as building material

are briefly summarized as:

Good processing properties and easy application, light as

for a heat insulation and fire resistance material, no practical

deformation and warp as the lath of the wall. And because

of these excellent properties, gypsum board is regarded as

one of the indispensable materials among the interior

finishing materials.

 

Uses

Gypsum board is commonly used for the construction of

the inside wall, the ceiling, and the partitions. The application

technique can be broadly classified into two categories,

namely the dry method, in which the gypsum board is

finished with wall-papers or is painted, or the printed gypsum

board is directly applied, and the wet method in which the

surface of the gypsum board is plastered. Hence the choice

of the suitable type of gypsum board and the application

method thereof are to be considered according to the

circumstances.

The paper covering the both sides of gypsum core of the

gypsum board is normally consisted of 3 to 8 layers of fibrous

tissue. The most important properties required for the paper

are the adhesion characteristic with gypsum, the strength

and the resistance against the undulant tendency caused by

the repeated drying and humidification.

 

GLASS FIBRE

The Glass derived from the latin word “Glesum” means

transparent, lustrous substance. “A uniform amorphous

solid material, usually produced when a suitably viscous

molten material cools very rapidly. Glasses exhibit a glass

transition temperature, below which they are true solids and

above which they flow as a very viscous liquid. Glass is a state

of matter not a substance. Glass is a hard, brittle, and usually

transparent material. Glass is often referred to as a

supercooled liquid in that it has no crystallisation or melting

point.

A Glass fibre or Fibre glass can be defined as “A material

consisting of extremely fine filaments of glass that are

combined in yarn and woven into fabrics, used in masses as

a thermal and acoustical insulator, or embedded in various

resins to make boat hulls, fishing rods, and the like.”

Fiberglass materials are popular for their attributes of

high strength compared to relatively light weight. Fiberglass

really is made of glass, similar to windows or the drinking

glasses. The glass is heated until it is molten, then it is forced

through superfine holes, creating glass filaments that are very

thin – so thin they are better measured in microns.

 

Polymer matrix composites containing glass fibers are

used to make external body panels, bumper beams, pultruded

body panels and airducts, engine components, etc. Parts

made are much lighter thanmetallic ones, making the

automobile more fuel efficient.

Aerospace Market: Glass fiber reinforced composites are

used to make aircraft parts such as wings, helicopter rotor

blades, engine ducts etc. glass fiber has a relatively low elastic

modulus. Hence it is more common touse glass fiber

reinforced polymer composites in the interior of an airplane

rather than in primary structural parts.

• The radar transparency characteristics of glass has

given it some key uses in the radar evading stealth

technologies.

Marine Market: Sailing boats and hulls and decks of

commercial fishing boats and military mine hunters are

frequently made of glass fiber reinforced polymers. Glass fiber

reinforced polyester is commonly used in making boats of all

sizes.

Civil Construction: Typical applications include the use

of glass fibers in polymeric resins for paneling, bathtubs and

shower stalls, doors, windows etc. glassfibers are also used

as reinforcement in a variety of house hold itemssuch as

paper, tapes, lampshades etc. Some special alkali resistant

glass fibers have been developed for reinforcement of cement

and concrete. Commonly steel bars are used for such

purposes.

 

COMPLEX FERTILIZERS

Complex fertilizers (also known as compound fertlizers)

are made from mixing two or more of macro-nutrient type

fertlizers. They may also be further blended with elements

that provide some of the less-common plant nutrients (known

as secondary or trace nutrients, such as sulfur, calcium and

magnesium). Compound fertilizer can be packaged and

distributed in liquid or granular form.

A numbering system is used to define the percentages of

the three essential plant nutrients. For example, a 20-20-10

fertilizer would contain 20 percent nitrogen, 20 percent

phosphorus and 10 percent potassium.

Complex fertilizer process plants around the world use

the raw materials with approximate purity of Phosphoric acid

of conc. 46% and 26%, Sulphuric acid of 93%, Ammonia

99.5% maximum, Urea prills, Muriate of Potash, Fillers.

NPK fertilizer plants are used for production of complex

with different concentrations and types, such as inorganic

fertilizers and biological fertilizers. These fertilizers can be

obtained in the form of uniform granules from 1 mm to 4 mm

size. These granules are white, cream, brown, gray or black

in color. Moreover, the production line can be optimized

manufacture different grades such as; and 8 :20: 14: 5, 10 :

15 : 10 : 4, 10 : 24 : 17 : 6, 12 : 16 : 22: 6.5, and 14 : 22 : 15 :

6 etc.

Complex Fertilizer for Vegetables

Characteristics

• Being a base fertilizer, nitrogen, phosphorus,

potassium and other organic matters are properly

blended.

• Improves the taste, quality and appearance of

vegetables.

• Other organic matters contained in the complex

fertilizer have a strong sustaining power and prevents

chemical fertilizer components from being washed

away. They also help invigorate activities of soil

microorganisms disintegrating not readily utilized

nutrients in the soil, thus helping vegetables grow. The

organic matters also have a big capacity to hold

moisture and minimize damages by the dry spell. They

are helpful to vegetables that have to survive during

the winter (onion, garlic, oil vegetables and barley)

since they contribute to raising the soil temperature.

 

Scrubbing Section

There are 3 scrubbing units (that include the 3 scrubbing

steps)

• The first unit is composed of Granulator fumes prescrubber

for the gases coming from the granulator

mainly containing ammonia & dust. It is a vertical

section/ cyclonic type scrubber. The washing liquid

is normally constituted by phosphoric acid (20-40%

P2O5) and some sulphuric acid. In this high pressure

sprays are used for gaseous fluoride and ammonia

absorption.

• The second unit (second scrubbing step)

is composed of granulator scrubber, Dryer scrubber,

Cooler & Dedusting scrubber. The first one for the

gases coming from the granulator pre-scrubber, the

second one for gases coming from the dryer-cyclones.

• The third one of gases coming from the cooler cyclones

and dedusting cyclones, mainly containing dust. All

the three scrubbers are of similar towers, venture/

cyclonic type, but logically with different dimensions,

and in this more diluted acids are used.


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