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Drugs and Pharmaceutical

Saturday, December 6, 2014

Drug is a chemical substance that affects the functioning of living things and the organisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses) that infect them. Pharmacology, the science of drugs deals with all aspects of drugs in medicine including their mechanism of action, physical and chemical properties, metabolism, therapeutics and toxicity. Drugs may also affect the blood itself, such as by activating or inhibiting enzymes involved in the formation of clots (thrombi) within blood vessels. Thrombi form when blood vessels are damaged, such as by wounding or by the accumulation of harmful substances (e.g., fat, cholesterol, inflammatory substances) on the inner walls of vessels. Drugs may act on the digestive system either by affecting the actions of the involuntary muscle (motility) and thus altering movement or by altering the secretion of digestive juices or gastric emptying. A pharmaceutical drug (medicine or medication and officially medicinal product) is a drug used in health care. Such drugs aid the diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease. Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management.

Pharmaceutical or a drug is classified on the basis of their origin:

1)      natural origin

2)      chemical as well as natural origin

3)      Chemical synthesis.

4)      animal origin

5)      microbial origin

6)      biotechnology genetic-engineering, hybridoma technique

The environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products is controversial. PPCPs are substances used by individuals for personal health or cosmetic reasons and the products used by agribusiness to boost growth or health of livestock. Drug discovery and drug development are complex and expensive endeavors undertaken by pharmaceutical companies, academic scientists, and governments. Governments generally regulate what drugs can be marketed, how drugs are marketed, and in some jurisdictions, drug pricing. Controversies have arisen over drug pricing and disposal of used drugs.

India’s drugs and pharmaceuticals industry is likely to post total sales of Rs.2.91 trillion ($47.88 billion) by 2018, with an average yearly growth of at least 14%. During 2014-2016, about $92 billion worth patented drugs are expected to go off patent in the US as compared with $65 billion during 2010-12. The yearly average growth of drug exports in this period was 19%, which was also primarily driven by increasing demand for generics on the back of patent expiries of several high-value drugs.


Drugs & Pharmaceutical Technology Handbook describes the detailed information on the subject. The major contents of this book are: polymeric materials used in drug delivery systems, properties of fatty alcohol mixed, tablet lubricants, a convenient method for conversion of quinine to quinidine, sustained rlease salbutamol tablets - formulation engineering and evaluation composite wax matrix and influence ofadditives, reducing-substances-freeacetic anhydride for pharmaceutical industries, chemotherapeutics, antiviral, chemotherapeutics, antiprotozoal

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Source: NPCS Team

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