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Cashew Cultivation, Processing & By-Products

Wednesday, October 30, 2013


Cashew (Anacardium occidentale), was introduced in India during the later half of the 16th Century for the purpose of afforestation and soil conservation. From its humble beginning as a crop intended to check soil erosion, cashew has emerged as a major foreign exchange earner next only to tea and coffee. Commercial cultivation of cashew in India is taken up in eight states in India. Cashew is one of the prominent horticultural crops which have been contributing to the Indian economy in a sustained manner. It is a crop which has been a source of income to small and marginal farmers of the country.

Diseases of cashew

·         Damping off (Pytopthora Palmivora)

·         Seedling blight (Cylindrocladium Scoparium)

·         Seedling Root Rot (Pythium Ultimum)

·         Anthracnose

·         Inflorescence Blight

·         Die-Back or Pink Disease

·         Gummosis

·         Leaf Spots

·         Thysanoptera

·         Coleopteran

·         Mites

Importance of cashew

·         Cashew is held with great esteem in many customs and cultures.

·         Cashew is known by many names.

·         The cashew industry ranks third in the world production of edible

·         Cashew kernels are ranked as either the second or third most expensive nut traded in the United States.

·         The extensive market connections of exporters from Brazil and India make it difficult for the smaller exporters to make gains in the United States market.

Morphology and Characteristics of Growth and Development of Cashew Tree

·         Floral Biology

·         The Inflorescence

·         Flowers

·         Flushing Period

·         Flowering Season

·         Flower-Bud Development

·         Mode of Pollination

·         Pollen Viability and Germination In Artificial Media

·         Fruit Set and Fruit Drop

Factors affecting Cashew Production

·            Effect of latitude and altitude on flowering

·            Rainfall and sunshine versus bud break

·            Heat units and cashew yield

Planning for Improved Productivity through Efficient Water Management

Cashew has well adapted to the Indian climatic conditions, particularly in coastal belt of the country. It is suitable for cultivation in the regions having annual rainfall between 600 and 700mm, upto an altitude of 700 m above mean sea level and temperatures not below 20°C. Cashew can withstand extreme rainfall conditions ranging from 200 to 4000 mm per annum. It is a sun-loving tree and does not tolerate excessive shade. It does not tolerate very high temperatures above 45° C during fruit setting and developmental stage. There has been a steady increase in the productivity of cashew nut. Over the years cashew has emerged as a high income-generating export-oriented commodity. Despite the increase in area and production over the past several years, the current production is able to supply only about 50% of the demand of raw cashew nut by processing industry. In India, cashew is cultivated mostly as a rainfed crop by small and marginal farmers. In West Coast, cashew is largely grown on hill slopes where topsoil has been eroded almost completely leading to exposure of subsoil.

Indian Market Structure and Government Initiatives


The cashew industry ranks third in the world production of edible nuts with world production in 2000 at about 2 million tonnes of nuts-in-shell and an estimated value in excess of US$2 billion. India and Brazil are the major cashew exporters, with 60 percent and 31 percent respectively of world market share. The major importers are the United States (55 percent), the Netherlands (ten percent), Germany (seven percent), Japan (five percent) and the United Kingdom (five percent).


Cashew kernels are ranked as either the second or third most expensive nut traded in the United States. Macadamia nuts are priced higher and pecan nuts can be more costly, if the harvest is poor. Cashew nuts have a well established market in the United States with a great variety of uses. Retail prices range from about US$4 to 11 per pound (US$9 to 23 per kg) depending on the size of nut and the packaging.

It is reported that as many as 20 species of Anacardium Linn, are known to exist within Central and South America; among which Anacardium occidentale (Cashew nut) is the only species which has been introduced outside the new world and commercially grown in the tropical countries.


The Cashew Industry in India has a history of about a Century which dates back to the first quarter of the 20th Century. From a meager quantity of 50 tonnes baggage in the most primitive paper cover enclosures sent to USA in the year 1921, it has steadily grown over a period of time and has attained an export level of 1.00 lakh tonnes of cashew kernels, valued at Rs 2,500 crores. The credit to this admirable achievement in cashew export sector goes to the untiring efforts of our industrial entrepreneurs.


The 80's of 20th century was indeed an era of silverline for cashew development in India. The first half of this period witnessed the launch of an internationally- aided project (World Bank-aided Multi State Cashew Project). Massive area coverage with elite seed took place. Research activity attained a better boost in terms of financial help, technical work and infrastructural build-up. More than 60,000 ha area came under cashew in both public and private sectors. This project was one of the milestones in the scenario of Indian Cashew Development. Nearly 4.5 million dollars (nearly Rs 45 million) was the financial inflow.


Production of cashew in India takes place in Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, interior tracts of Chhattisgarh and North-eastern region. India has an area of about 7.30 lakh ha under cashew with an estimated annual production of about 4.60 lakh tonnes of raw cashew nut. India is the largest producer, processor, consumer and exporter of cashew in the world. The current production accounts for 45% of the global production.

 Further information:

The Complete Book on Cashew (Cultivation, Processing & By-Products) describes detailed information on subject. This book is not only confined to the different methods of cashew processing but also describe about by-products obtained from cashew. The traditional method of cashew processing through which we get CNSL(Cashew Nut Shell Liquid),the major source of Cardanol. We also came to know about production of CNSL derivatives, polymerization of CNSL, rubber like elasticity products, styrene product of CNSL, multifunctional alcohol obtained from CNSL and lots of other information.

Cardanol is a phenolic lipid which is the byproduct of cashew nut processing. It has several uses and applications in chemistry, chemical industries, additives industries and fuel industries for low sulphur diesel fuel. This book contains the purification process of CNSL for isolation of cardanol, evaluation of copperised CNSL and neem oil as wood preservatives. It also provides a wide idea to their readers about its nutritional value, commercial exploitation, hygiene and safety issues, packaging and preservation, uses, manufacturers and suppliers of machinery of this process.

This book also engaged in quality control system, design and development of soft nano materials from CNSL cashew to play a vital role in nano technology. It covers all the area concerned in this field and presents a crystal clear overview on the process and its by-product from all possible aspects.

In order to get “The Complete Book on Cashew (Cultivation, Processing & By-Products)” and to know that how they can help you please visit:

Source: NPCS Team

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