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Saturday, October 19, 2013


Detergents, chemically known as alfa olefin sulphonates (AOS) are used as fabric brightening agent, anti-deposition agent, stain remover and as a bleacher. A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with "cleaning properties in dilute solutions". The sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids are soaps while salts of long chain sulphonic acids are detergents, this compound have hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature. The detergent includes from about 5% to about 80% of an inorganic carrier, from about 1% to about 90% of a detergent surfactant, from about 0.1% up to about 15% of an acidulant which is selected from the group of acids and from about 0.1% up to about 30% of the discrete whitening agent particle

Detergents are either derived from petrochemicals, vegetable oils or animal fat. Builders, enzymes, antioxidants, fabric softeners, antimicrobial agents etc are the compounds added with detergents to enhance the property.

Composition of Detergent

1. Texapon

2. Na2SO4 to taste

3. NaHCO3 25%

4. NaCO3 7%

5. STPP / CMC taste

6. Perfume to taste


Role of Detergent

Detergents that are basically surfactants are the active cleaning agents that perform three major roles:

·         Penetrating and wetting fabric.

·         Loosening soils (assisted by the mechanical action of the washing machine).

·         Emulsifying soils and keeping them suspended in the wash solution.


Methods of manufacturing

Detergents can be manufactured by these methods like spray drying, agglomeration, dry mixing or combinations of these methods and blending process


Types of cleaning Detergents

There are three types of detergents

·         Anionic detergents

·         Non-Ionic detergents

·         Cationic detergents

·         Amphoteric detergents

·         Alkaline detergents

·         Caustic Materials

·         Acid Cleaners

·         Detergent Crystals

·         Solvent-Based detergent Wax Removers

Classification based on the physical form

·         Liquid detergent

·         Detergents cream 

·         Detergent powder

·         Hollowed detergent powder

·         Compact powder detergent 

Market structure

          Detergents, as a constituent of the overall FMCG industry, accounts for a near 12% of the total demand for all FMCG products estimated at over Rs 530 bn. Total market of synthetic detergents and scourers was valued at about Rs 90 bn in 2007-08. It represents an increase of 15% over that of preceding year. A major input for the production of detergents is a petrochemical, Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB), while soaps rely more on an inorganic chemical, caustic soda, as a major input.

Bars make up for less than half of the market, while powders have more than a third of the market. Liquids have 12% presence in the market. The bar market is dominated by Hindustan Lever (now Hindustan Unilever - HUL) with a share of over 40% held by its brands - Rin, Wheel, 555, Shakti, OK. The super-premium market, making up for around 10% of the overall detergents market, is dominated by Surf Excel from HUL and Ariel from Proctor & Gamble (P&G). The two together have a near 75% market with the rest coming in from players like Henkel SPIC. In the sub premium segment, Nirma from Nirma Soaps and Wheel from HUL are the major brands with small presence from an array of brands like Trilo, Hipolin, Tide, Key, Chek and others.

The detergents market in India is dominated by HUL. Nirma is the second largest player with an overall market share of 19%. Nirma is more dominant in the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana, that is Northwest India. Nirma has the highest market share of around 40% in Gujarat. It has the highest market share in the mass segment, like toilet soaps.

Hindustan UniLever was the first to launch the powder detergent, Surf, as far back as 1959. The company had earlier commissioned a 30,000 tpa detergent unit at Haldia. This till then was the largest detergent manufacturing unit set up in India. Wheel is HUL's leading detergent brand and contributes around 50% to the revenues of the company's laundry business. It also set up a Rs 1.1 bn soaps and detergents manufacturing facility in Himachal Pradesh. The new unit has a capacity of producing 110,000 tonnes of soaps and detergents. It helped take the annual turnover of the country's largest fast moving consumer goods company past the Rs 163 bn mark in 2008.

Nirma became the leader in the powder detergent market by its unique new low-priced product in direct confrontation with Hindustan Lever. It captured about 43% share of the low priced detergent market. It, introduced new products like soaps, shampoos and toothpastes under the same umbrella brand. Nirma has cornered a 19% of the detergent market to emerge as the second largest player after HUL.

Henkel Spic is a 47% subsidiary of German detergent leader, Henkel AG. It has a wide product portfolio consisting of detergent powders, bars, dishwash bars, liquids and cleansers, with a good presence in the southern market. Recent product launches have been reasonably successful. However, its all-India market shares are not very significant both for its powder brands (Henko Megastar, Henko White Giant) and for bars.   

How beneficial Niir Project Consultancy Services (NPCS) can be:-


NPCS can provide project consultancy services to any budding entrepreneur, who wants to get knowledge on manufacturing of Detergents. Our Consultancy can provide the complete report covering topics like Plant Economics, Production Schedule, Land & Building, Site Development Expenses, and Working Capital Requirement etc.

NPCShelps in establishing business prospective in the manufacturing of Detergents and cleaning powder.  Our detailed project report can be modified as per requirement of cost and capacity of the project. We have a state-of-the-art experience in preparing projects report on different subjects as per need.

Detailed project report contains:

·         Introduction

·         Properties

·         BIS (Bureau of Indian Standard) Specifications & Requirements

·         Uses & Applications

·         Present Indian Market Position

·         Expected Future Demand

·         Export & Import Statistics Data

·         Names and Addresses of Existing Units (Present Manufactures)

·         List of Plant & Machineries

·         Miscellaneous Items and Accessories

·         Instruments, Laboratory Equipments and Accessories

·         Electrification, Electric Load and Water

·         Maintenance, Suppliers/Manufacturers of Plant and Machineries

·         Process of Manufacture

·         Flow Sheet Diagram

·         List of Raw Materials

·         Availability of Raw Materials

·         Requirement of Staff & labour

·         Personnel Management

·         Skilled & Unskilled labour

·         Requirement of Land Area

·         Built up Area

·         Plant Layout.


Along with financial details as under:

•        Assumptions for Profitability workings

•        Plant Economics

•        Production Schedule

•        Land & Building

Factory Land & Building

Site Development Expenses


•        Plant & Machinery

Indigenous Machineries

Other Machineries (Miscellaneous, Laboratory etc.)


•        Other Fixed Assets

Furniture & Fixtures

Pre-operative and Preliminary Expenses

Technical Knowhow

Provision of Contingencies


•        Working Capital Requirement Per Month

Raw Material

Packing Material

Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

Consumable Store


•        Overheads Required Per Month and Per Annum

Utilities & Overheads (Power, Water and Fuel Expenses etc.)

Royalty and Other Charges

Selling and Distribution Expenses


•        Salary and Wages

•        Turnover Per Annum

•        Share Capital


Equity Capital

Preference Share Capital


•        Annexure 1          ::        Cost of Project and Means of Finance

•        Annexure 2          ::        Profitability and Net Cash Accruals


Expenses/Cost of Products/Services/Items

Gross Profit

Financial Charges    

Total Cost of Sales

Net Profit After Taxes

Net Cash Accruals


•        Annexure 3                    ::        Assessment of Working Capital requirements

Current Assets

Gross Working. Capital

Current Liabilities

Net Working Capital

Working Note for Calculation of Work-in-process


•        Annexure 4                    ::        Sources and Disposition of Funds

•        Annexure 5                    ::        Projected Balance Sheets

ROI (Average of Fixed Assets)

RONW (Average of Share Capital)

ROI (Average of Total Assets)


•        Annexure 6                    ::        Profitability ratios


Earnings Per Share (EPS)

Debt Equity Ratio


•        Annexure 7                    ::        Break-Even Analysis

Variable Cost & Expenses

Semi-Var./Semi-Fixed Exp.

Profit Volume Ratio (PVR)

Fixed Expenses / Cost 



•        Annexure 8 to 11 ::        Sensitivity Analysis-Price/Volume

Resultant N.P.B.T

Resultant D.S.C.R

Resultant PV Ratio

Resultant DER

Resultant ROI

Resultant BEP


•        Annexure 12        ::        Shareholding Pattern and Stake Status

Equity Capital

Preference Share Capital


•        Annexure 13        ::        Quantitative Details-Output/Sales/Stocks

Determined Capacity P.A of Products/Services

Achievable Efficiency/Yield % of Products/Services/Items 

Net Usable Load/Capacity of Products/Services/Items   

Expected Sales/ Revenue/ Income of Products/ Services/ Items   


•        Annexure 14        ::        Product wise domestic Sales Realization

•        Annexure 15        ::        Total Raw Material Cost

•        Annexure 16        ::        Raw Material Cost per unit

•        Annexure 17        ::        Total Lab & ETP Chemical Cost

•        Annexure 18        ::        Consumables, Store etc.,

•        Annexure 19        ::        Packing Material Cost

•        Annexure 20        ::        Packing Material Cost Per Unit

•        Annexure 21        ::        Employees Expenses

•        Annexure 22        ::        Fuel Expenses

•        Annexure 23        ::        Power/Electricity Expenses

•        Annexure 24        ::        Royalty & Other Charges

•        Annexure 25        ::        Repairs & Maintenance Exp.

•        Annexure 26        ::        Other Mfg. Expenses

•        Annexure 27        ::        Administration Expenses

•        Annexure 28        ::        Selling Expenses

•        Annexure 29        ::        Depreciation Charges – as per Books (Total)

•        Annexure 30        ::        Depreciation Charges – as per Books (P & M)

•        Annexure 31        ::        Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (Total)

•        Annexure 32        ::        Depreciation Charges - As per IT Act WDV (P & M)

•        Annexure 33        ::        Interest and Repayment - Term Loans

•        Annexure 34        ::        Tax on Profits

•        Annexure 35        ::        Projected Pay-Back Period And IRR


In order to get consultancy services for manufacturing of Detergent and to know more about the cleaning powder and surfactants, you may visit: to know every bit of information regarding manufacturing and market structure of the Detergents.

Source: NPCS Team

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