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The Complete Technology Book on Soaps (2nd Revised Edition)

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The Complete Technology Book on Soaps (2nd Revised Edition)

Author: NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9788178331676
Code: NI110
Pages: 496
Price: Rs. 1,425.00   US$ 150.00

Published: 2016
Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
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Soap is the traditional washing compound made from oil fats and caustic alkali. It is an item of daily necessity as cleaning agent. There are few specialty soaps like the washing soaps, castile soaps, sandal soap, specially flavored soaps, medicated soaps, toilet soaps and baby soaps. Population growth, especially households with children has a proportional impact on the growth of the manufacturing sector of the industry. The soap industry is vivacious, varied, creative and tricky, and has the prospective to provide a gratifying career. With increasing popularity there has been increase in potential competitors but it still has the opportunity of further exploitation.

Today with increase in disposable incomes all around the world, demand for these products expected to increase because consumers are moving up towards premium products. With increasing awareness of hygienic standards, the market for the Soap is growing at a rate higher than 8% annually. People have become more creative in trying to find new ways in which they can make soap either for domestic use or commercial purposes. This book will provide all the basic facts and information you need to get started. You will be able to slowly build your way up to completely master the art of soap making.

The book contains processes formulae, Photographs of Plant & Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details, Addresses of Raw Material Suppliers and providing information regarding manufacturing method of different washing and toilet soaps. Some of the fundamentals of the book are raw material oil and fats, fatty acids, manufacture of soap products, technology of soap manufacturing, various formulations of soaps, soap perfumery, management of soap factories, analytical methods.

This book will be a mile stone for its readers who are new to this sector, will also find useful for professionals, entrepreneurs, those studying and researching in this important area.


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Contents

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1. Introduction
Definition
Uses
Cleansing Mechanism
Characteristics of Soap
Saponification of Fats - The Basic Chemical
Reaction Making Soap

2. Raw Materials Oil and Fats
(The Main Raw Materials for Soaps)
Classification of Fats/Oils
Some of the Most Useful Fats and Oils
Tallow
Coconut Oil
Palm Oil
Palm Kernel Oil
Cottonseed Oil
Castor Oil
Chinese Vegetable Tallow
Corn Oil
Rice Bran Oil
Linseed Oil
Olive Oil
Groundnut Oil
Tall Oil
Mahua Oil
Babassu Oil
Neat's-Foot Oil
Lard
Greases
Fish Oil
Hydrogenated Oils
Purification of Soap Fats
Acid Washing
Alkali Refining
Bleaching
Absorbent Bleaching
Bleaching By Using Oxidizing Agents
Testing Of Soap Fats
Properties
Non Fatty Raw Materials For Soap
The Alkalis
Soap Builders
Filler
Stabilizers, Anti-oxidants
Other Additives (Foam Producers)
Foaming Agents Used in Soap
Solvents
Medicaments/Deodorants/Bacteriostatic Agents
Clarifiers
Colouring Matters
Preparation of Colours
Water Soluble
Oil Soluble
Alcohol Soluble
Milled Soaps
Full-boiled/Semi-boiled/cold-made Soaps
Soap Bases and Liquid Soaps
Washing/Laundry Soaps
Medicated Soaps
Perfumes
Comprehensive Details
Essential Oils
Isolates
Synthetic Chemicals

3. Fatty Acids
Types of fatty acids and their physical
properties
Physical properties of fatty acids
Melting point

Boiling point
Viscosity
Density
Solubilities
Refractive Index
Heat of crystallisation
Polymorphism
Fatty acids of oils and fats
Raw materials of fatty acids
Animal fats
Tall oil
Vegetable oils and soap stocks
Manufacture of fatty acids
Pretreatment of feed stock
Fat splitting
High pressure catalytic splitting
High pressure steam splitting
Continuous fat splitting
Refining of crude fatty acids
Distillation of fatty acids
Mazzoni fat splitting and distillation process
Distillation of crude fatty acid
Splitting
Distillation
Splitting plant using thermic fluid instead
of steams
Fractional distillation of fatty acids
Development trends in fatty acid distillation
Panning & pressing process
Solvent crystallisation process
Lurgi Wetting Method
Recovery of glycerine
Pre-treatment and evaporation of spent-lye
Pre-treatment and evaporation of sweet water
Distillation of crude glycerine
Synthesis of fatty acids

4. Manufacture of Soap Products
Health and safety Factors
Classification of Soap Products
Methods of Manufacture
Various Finishing Methods
Production
Full Boiling Process (Description)
The Process
First Stage
Second Stage
Third Stage
Fourth Stage
Fifth Stage
Washing Bar/Cake Soap From Neat Soap
Jet Saponification Process
Glycerine Recovery
Semi-Boiling Process and Cold-Made Process
General Description
Production of Washing Bar/Cake Soap
by Semi-Boiling/Cold-Made Process
Equipments
Process Operations
Examination of Cold-Made Products
Formulations for Washing Soaps
Washing Soap Using Soap Stock as Main
Fatty Raw Material
A Typical Batch
Toilet Soap
Milling Process
Floating Toilet Soap Cake
Manufacture of Toilet Soap by Semi-Boiled/
Cold-Made Process
Procedure
Alkali
Milled Finished Soap
A Typical Batch For Toilet Soap
Mottled Soap
Carbolic Acid Soap
Suggested Formulation
Procedure
Medicated Soaps
Castile Soap
Castile Soap by Boiling Process
Some Suggested Formulations for Castile Soap
Deodorant Soaps
Various Industrial Soaps
Textile Soaps
Laundry Washing Alds
A Fabric Cleaning Compound
Cotton Scouring Soap
Dry Cleaner's Soap
Water Softener
Jelly Soap/Soft Soap
Automobile Soap
Wire Drawing Soap
Scouring Soap
Preparation of Washing Soap Powder
Simplified Method
Powdered By Pulverising Method
Washing Powder by Spray-Crystallization
Soap Beads or Granules by Spray-Drying
Soap Flakes
Shaving Soaps
Procedure
Shaving Cream
Other Formulation
Brushless/Latherless Shaving Cream
Liquid Shaving Cream
Basic Combination
Thicker Cream
Aerosol Package
Liquid Soaps/Shampoos
Process of Manufacture
Equipments
Liquid Toilet Soap Concentrates
Liquid Washing Soap Concentrate
Shampoos
Classification
Physical States
Characteristics
Various Additives of Shampoos Imparting
Special Properties
Solubilizer
Opacifiers
Thickeners for Body or Viscosity
Foam Stabilizers
Conditioning Agents
Agents for Resistance of Hard-Water
Germicidal Agents
Preservatives
Soap Shampoos
Older Methods
Modern Methods
Some Typical Formulations
Shampoos Based on Synthetic Surfactants
General Formulations
Liquid Cream Shampoos and Paste Cream
Foamless Oil Shampoos
Baby Shampoos
Medicated Dandruff Shampoos
Other Miscellaneous Shampoos
Aerosol Shampoos (Pressure Dispersed)
Method of Continuous Saponification of Fats
by Alkali Solution
Method of Continuous Splitting of fats into
fatty Acids and Glycerol with Simultaneous
Neutralization of free fatty Acids with Alkali
Yielding Soap
Continuous Neutralization Process
Description of A Process
Advantages
Disadvantages
Continuous Neutralization Process using Fatty
Acids Instead of fats
Batch Methods of Splitting fats into fatty
Acids and Glycerol
Purification of Fatty Acids

5 Technology of Soap Manufacturing
Manufacturing Soap
Techniques
Saponification Equipments used by the
Small-scale sector
Equipment for batch soapmaking
Improved methods of saponification
Lye Absorption
Saponification Loop
Saponification of Distilled Fatty Acids
Alfa Laval Continuous Saponification
Washing of saponified soap
Staight washes
Counter current washes using a set of pans
Counter current washes in a single
divided pan
Rotating disc contactor (RDC)
Fitting of Soap
Method of Expressing Free Alkali, Chloride
and TFM
Plant for Total Soapmaking Operation
Construction Materials for Soapmaking Plants
Earth bleaching of oils
Chemical bleaching
Fatty acids
Lye treatment
Storage of raw lye
Output of Soap and Glycerine
Analysis of oils
Ester value of oils
Glycerine Recovery
Introduction
Glycerine Recovery Procedure
Purpose of Lye Treatment
Method of Lye Treatment
Treatment of Sweet Water
First treatment
Second treatment
Evaporation
Continuous Finisher
Refining of Crude Glycerine
Production of Laundry and Toilet Soaps
Introduction
Frame Cooling of Soap
Production of Filled Soaps on the Mazzoni
Billeting
Technology of Toilet Soaps
Introduction
Oil blend
Production of toilet soap
Mixing of soap
Preservatives
Perfumes
Colours
Opacifiers
Optical brightners
Super-fatting agent
Structurants
Bactericides and germicides
Miscellaneous additives
Design of mixers
Refiners vs. Mills
Plodding
Stamping
Wrapping
Packing
Carbolic Soap
Transparent Soaps
Introduction
Manufacturing methods
Manufacturing method
Translucent Soaps
Oil blend
Floating Soap
Marbled Soap
Process Control
Introduction
Pre-treatment of Raw Materials
Soapmaking
Fat charge control
Colour of soap base
Free alkali and chloride
Unsaponified fat
Glycerol in soap
Process Controls Beyond Pan Room:
Domestic Soap
Toilet Soap
Other Soaps
Soap Chips
Soap Noodles
Soap Flakes
Soap Powder for Laundries
Shaving Cream
Soft Soap
Medicated Soap
Shaving Soap

6 Various Formulations of Soaps
Toilet Soap of Inferior Quality
Process
Toilet Soap of Lux Type
Process
Khas Soap
Amla Soap
Rose Soap
Sandal Soap
Musk Soap
Almond Soap
Transparent Soaps
Process
Medicated Soaps
Stock Soap
Formulae and Process Description for
Various Medicated Soaps
Process
Carbolic Soap
Process
Procedure
Neem Soap
Process
Camphor Soap
Procedure
Chaulmogra Soap
Procedure
Shaving Soaps and Creams
Shaving Soaps
Solid Shaving Preparation
Lather Shaving Cream
Liquid Soaps and Shampoos
Process of Manufacture
Liquid Shampoos
Egg Shampoos
Herbal Shampoos
Washing Soap (Various Types)
Precautions regarding Manufacture of Soap
Nerol Washing Soap
Process
Soap Removal Procedure
Formulae for Nerol Soap

7 Soap perfumery
Soap compounds
Brown Windsor
Carnation
Chypre
Cologne
Cyclamen
Fougere
Heliotrope
Hyacinth
Jasmin
Lavender
Lilac
Lily

8 Management of Soap factories
Technical Efficiency
Introduction
Yield
Fatty acid yield
Glycerol yield
Active detergent yield
Over/under usage of materials
Packing loss/gain
Oil usage pattern
Scrap and downgrading losses
Productivity
Steam, water, electricity
Financial Summary
Pollution Control
Introduction
Source of Pollution
Oil spills
Chemical spills
Bleaching
Chemical treatment
Soap-making
Glycerine Recovery
Laundry Soaps
Toilet Soap
Synthetic Detergents
Sulphonation
Detergent powder manufacture
Boiler House
Coal spillages
Water treatment Section
Boiler Blow Down
Chimney exhaust
Boiler ash
Effluent Treatment
Space and location
Effluent characteristics
The requirements of treated effluent
Effluent treatment methodology
Treatment of Gaseous Effluents
Chemical bleaching
Saponification of oils
Toilet soap mixer
Refrigeration system
Oleum handling in the sulphonation plant
Oleum still furnace
Exhaust from spray drying tower and air lift
NSD bar mixer exhaust
Boiler exhaust
Analytical Support
Introduction
Oils
Chemicals
Packaging Materials
In-process Materials
Finished Products
Microbiological Controls
Analytical Equipments
General Comments
Quality Control
Introduction
Organisation
Facilities
Specifications
Chemicals
Packaging materials
Finished Product
Manufacturing Method
Fat Charge
Chemicals for soap-making
Sampling
Sampling of Raw Materials
Packing materials
Finished Products
Vendor education and rating
Process audit
Reporting
Micro-biological Controls
Bureau of Indian Standards Specifications
Quality Assurance
Introduction
Conventional Approach to Quality
Recommended Approach to Quality
Implementation of Quality Assurance
Quality Control
Quality Audit
Summary
Total Quality Management (TQM)
ISO 9000 Series Standards
Common Quality Problems of Soaps
Introduction
Laundry Soaps
Lather
Cracking
Detergency
Toilet Soaps
Base odour
Rancidity
Discoloration of soap
Cracking
Blisters
Sandiness
Mushiness
Wear
Hardness
Lather
Efflorescence
Storage and Product Assessment Tests
Storage
Product Assessment
Assessment in laundry soaps
Detergency
Lather
Perfume Impact
Wear
Cracking
Assessment of toilet soaps
Feel of soap in use
Mush
Common Quality Problems of Detergents
Detergent Powder
Solubility
Skin irritation
Poor lather/detergency
Detergent Cake
Sogginess
Roughness
Whitish deposit
Poor colour
Poor lather and detergency
Stain Removal
Introduction
Type of stains
Removal of Stains
Lime soap
Protein stains
Iron compounds
Stains due to dyes
Mildew stains
Physical methods of stain removal
Assessment of stain removal

9 Analytical Methods
Determination of Soap Composition
For Nature of Fatty acids in soap
For Anhydrous soap and total alkali content
Procedure
Isolation of Fatty Acids and Rosin Acid
From Soap
Acid Value
Sponification Value
The Saponification
Iodine Value
Wijs Solution (Iodine monochloride solution)
Determination
Titer Test
Procedure
Rosin Value
Procedure
Determination of Total Anhydrous Soap and
Combined Alkali Content
Procedure
Unsaponified and Unsaponifiable Matter
Determination
Testing of Fatty Oils used for Soap
Moisture and Volatile Matter
Insoluble Impurities
Soluble Mineral Matter
Determination of Total Fatty Acids of soap
stock and acidulated soap stock
Acid value
Ester value
Determination of rancidity
Rosin Test
Colour Test
Bleach Test
Smoke Point
Flash Point
Turbidity Point
Cloud Point

10 Plant and Machinery
Four Blades Chipping Machine
Other Chipping Machines
Packing Machine
Spray Drier for making Detergent Powder
Portal Stirrer (Mechanical Agitator)
High Speed Dissolver
Planetry Mixer
Centrifuge
Emulsifier
Edge Runners
Ball and Pebble Mills
Automatic Liquid Filling and Weighing Machine
Automatic Paste Filling and Crimping Machine
Automatic Power Filling Machine
Marking and Printing Machine
Marking and Printing Machine
Bottle Washing Machine
Ribbon Blender
Batch Mixer
Plodders
Cutters
Soap Press

11 Addresses of Raw Material Suppliers
12 Photographs of Plant & Machinery with Supplier's Contact Details

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Sample Chapters


(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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RAW MATERIALS OIL AND FATS

(THE MAIN RAW MATERIALS FOR SOAPS)

CLASSIFICATION OF FATS/OILS

Glycerides of various fatty acids solid at room temperature

are called fats and those liquid at room temperature are called

oils.

Thus, glycerides having higher melting points are termed

fats and those having lower melting points are termed oils.

And these in turn depend upon the nature of fatty acids

content of esters. These acids fall in two series as follows.

1. Saturated series, such as stearic acid.

2. Unsaturated series.

(a) Monoenoic acids containing one double bond,

such as oleic acid.

(b) Polyenoic acids containing more than one double

bonds, such as linoleic, linolenic acids.

The more unsaturated acids give esters with lower melting

points and these are the chief constituents of oils. The more

saturated acids containing esters are of higher melting points

and are chief constituents of fats (Table - 2.1).

These oils are called fixed oils as distinguished from

essential oils and petroleum oils. Fixed oils cannot be distilled

without some decomposition under normal atmospheric

pressure. Only fixed oil produces soap.

Fatty oils are further classified as

Animal origin: These usually occur as fats, such as tallow,

lard etc. The liquid types include fish oils, fish liver oils,

sperm oil etc.

Vegetable Origin: These are again sub classified as

A. On the Basis of Degree of Unsaturation

Drying – Iodine value above 130 (linseed oil,

Tung oil).

Semi-drying – Iodine value 90-130 (soyabean oil,

cottonseed oil etc.)

Non-drying – Iodine value below 90 (coconut oil,

castor oil etc.)

B. Enedible – Soap stocks (palm oil, coconut oil, mahua

oil, rice bran oil other enedible varieties of vegetable

oils).

C. Edible – (sunflower oil, coconut oil, corn oil, soyabean

oil, mustard oil, olive oil, cottonseed oil etc.)

SOME OF THE MOST USEFUL FATS AND OILS

Tallow

The fat recovered from fatbearing tissue of cattle, goat and

sheep by steaming method is called tallow. Various grades

of enedible tallows are prepared depending upon separation

of oelo oil. Enedible grade tallows have higher free fatty acids

content than edible grades. Enedible tallows are widely used

for soap making.

Coconut Oil

Coconut Oil is obtained from dried kernel (copra) of the

fruit coconut. Dried kernel has an oil content of 60 to 70

percent. Soap and edible oil industries are the largest

consumers of the oil.

Palm Oil

Palm oil also called palm fat is obtained from the fruit

of the palm tree, extensively cultivated in tropical countries,

West Africa (natural growth), Andaman Nicober Island of India

among other countries. The pulp of the olive like palm fruit

contains 30 to 70 percent oil. Free fatty acid content of the

oil varies depending upon the method of separation of oil

from fruit pulp. Fatty acids having much higher melting point

than glycerides, these oils are quite hard at ordinary

temperatures. Their colour is usually brownish red. Oil

containing 10 percent free fatty acids are soft in texture and

the best quality oil contains less than 5 percent free fatty

acids and its colour is yellow. Soap industry is the largest

consumer of palm oil. With some additional stearic acid, palm

oil can be used as substitute of tallow.

Palm Kernel Oil

Palm kernel oil is obtained from kernels of the palm fruits.

The kernel after separation from fruit pulp as in the case of

palm oil production are subjected to crush in mills and then

pressed to separate oil. It is also extracted by solvent extraction

method. Because of its similarity to coconut oil, palm kernel

oil is extensively used as substitute for the later.

Cottonseed Oil

Cottonseed oil is obtained from the seeds of various kinds

of cotton plant on a large scale in India, Egypt, United States

of America, Russia, China and other countries. The oil content

of the kernel is 30 to 40 percent. The extracted oil is clarified,

caustic refined bleached and deodourised to be used for edible

purposes. The oil is also used after undergoing hydrogenation.

The foots obtained on refining are known as soap stock.

They are extensively used in soap industry.

Castor Oil

The oil is extracted from seeds of the castor plant found

in most tropical regions. The seeds contain 35 to 55 percent

oil. The finest grade oil is used for medicinal purposes. The

lower grades used for the manufacture of transparent soap,

soft soap etc. Castor oil is sulphonated to produce turkey red

oil used in dyeing cotton fabrics.

Hydrogenated Oils

By partial hydrogenation, various fats and oils such as

cottonseed, soyabean, groundnut and fish are converted into

fats of composition more suitable for soap making as well as

other industrial purposes. Partial addition of hydrogen to the

unsaturated linkages of fat molecules converts unsaturated

fatty oils into more highly saturated fats. The soap industry

is the largest consumer of enedible hydrogenated oil.

PURIFICATION OF SOAP FATS

Among the undesirable components present in the crude

fatty oils, the removal of,

1. Suspended, dispersed and dissolved matter;

2. Colour bearing components; are essentially preferred

to get improved soap products.

For making toilet soaps, purified oils are used. For making

washing soaps, fats are generally used without decolourization.

In the full-boiled process of soap making, most of the impurities

including colour and odour imparting elements are removed

with lye. Soap made by semi-boiled and cold-made processes

requires purer grades of fats.

The methods used for purification of soap fats are:

A. Acid Washing

B. Alkali Refining

C. Bleaching

Clarifiers

Transparent hard soaps are manufactured by the addition

of sugar, alcohol or glycerine to prevent soap crystallization

during preparation.

Transparent soap can also be manufactured by application

of quick cooling method.

Colouring Matters

The purpose of colouring soap products is to give them

greater sales appeal for soaps and soap products it is essential

to have a colouring matter that is fast to alkali and light.

For some product, light fastness may be disregarded. In

general, it may be assumed that water soluble and oil soluble

colours have good fastness to both light and alkali. For

colouring soaps, water, oils and alcohol soluble dyes are used,

the solutions of which are prepared first before addition to

the product to be coloured.

PERFUMES

(Comprehensive Details)

Soaps and detergents consume the largest volume of

perfume. Fragrance is the main contributor in finishing toilet

soaps. Its role in any type of soap is no less important. They

are used for masking and altering the odour of soaps and

detergents and to create a pleasing aroma. Perfumes, though

not essential to performance of products, their use in soaps

increases customer appeals.

An acceptable fragrance is created by mixing and blending

number of pleasantly odourous substances by specialized

knowledge and skill. A single formulation may contain 50 to

100 different compounds. For use in soap the number is

much less, without sophistication and cheaper in cost.

The odourous substances used in perfume formulations

are classified as – (listed in Table 2.3)

(a) Essential oils

(b) Isolates

(c) Synthetic chemicals

MANUFACTURE OF SOAP PRODUCTS

HEALTH AND SAFETY FACTORS

In the soap industry, handling of caustic soap flakes or

strong solution is hazardous. Strong solution or moist flakes

are corrosive to all body tissues. It may cause serious eye

injuries and body burns. In such cases immediate washing

off with water is necessary. Caustic soda generates considerable

heat while dissolving. Unskilled new recruits are to be

cautioned about this. Solution should be made by adding to

water small amounts of flakes at a time. Goggles, protective

clothings are worn where danger from caustic soda exists.

In the zone of soap flakes and soap powder processing,

operation high dust concentration may cause irritation to the

mucous surfaces of nasal passages and throat. Such irritation

creates mild to severe discomfort but is not considered

particularly injurious. New recruits are chiefly affected by this

dust. Working people in dusty areas wear mask to prevent

irritation. Flakes or powders can be dedusted by making them

fall through the top of a tower against rising current of air

which carries up away the dust.

CLASSIFICATION OF SOAP PRODUCTS

Soap may be classified on the basis of their use. The main

classes are:

1. Washing Soap

2. Toilet Soap

3. Shaving Soap

4. Shampoo

Soaps may again be classified as

Regular soaps Hard Water Soaps

Supe Fatted Soaps Soft Soaps

Transparent Soaps Liquid Toilet soaps

Translucent soaps Liquid washing Soaps

Marbelised Soaps Soaps for Textile Manufacturers

Castile Soaps Shaving Cream

Deodorant Soaps Shampoos

Washing Bar Soaps Soap for other specific uses.

Another method of classification is to name the soaps on

the basis of finishing operations, such as

Form-made soaps

Milled Toilet Soaps

Floating bar Soaps

Milled Flakes

Unmilled Flakes

Washing Powdered Soaps

Soap beads

The classes are not all distinctly separable. There are

number of overlappings.

WASHING BAR/CAKE SOAP FROM NEAT SOAP

(FORM MADE SOAPS)

The neat soap is transferred into a stem jacketed crutcher

where various quantities of additives such as builders like

sodaash, sodium silicate and fillers, perfumes, stablizer,

colouring matters are added and well mixed.

The crutcher is a horizontal or vertical mixer. The mass

is mixed by paddles or worm type agitators suitable for

agitating dough like masses. If floating bar soap is to be

made, air can be beated into the mass by adjusting the speed

of the agitator to reduce its bulk density so that the finished

bar soap will float on water. The crutchers are built according

to needed capacity. It may be upto 5000 kg of capacity. For

making floating bar soap, votator is also used to incorporate

air into the soap mass. A votator is a mechanical device which

is also a mixer with paddle type agitator which beats air into

the pasty mass thereby, reducing the density of soap.

The crutched homogeneous soap mass which is kept at

a temperature of 65°C by supplying steam into outlet jacket

is then forced out through bottom outlet of crutcher into the

frames.

The frames are rectangular in shape, bottomless structures

made by four removable sides iron plates. In a big unit, the

capacity of a single frame is about 500 kg. The frames are

placed on platforms which is mounted on wheels to facilitate

pushing by hands the frames with soap to cooling room where

they are kept for 3 to 6 days under normal pressure and

temperature until soap becomes hard enough to cut into slabs

by slabbing machine.

The smaller units who make soap by semi-boiling/coldmade

process generally use frames made of wooden sides

having much smaller capacity and which are moved by simple

hand lifting. The height of the sides of frames are selected

according to the thickness of final soap bar.

The slabbing machine is a simple device holding horizontal

evenly placed wires. After removing the sides of the frame

these wires are forced through it to cut into slabs. The slabs

are then placed on table and cut into cakes. The blocks from

small wooden frames are directly placed on the table having

a sliding part of its top and fixed arrangement for cutting

by wire into cakes. A slabbing and cutting machine (Fig 1)

has the arrangement of pushing the block through vertical

wire and moving the slabs through another set of vertical wire

to cut into cakes.

The smaller units uses stamping system to be manually

operated. The main part consists of a hollow cast iron block,

the inside of which is of such dimension as to fit in soap

cake of desired size. A top cover has the required engravings

to be imprinted on cakes. The separate bottom plate also has

some intended engravings. Both the top and bottom covers

move freely inside the hollow block. For stamping, the soap

cake is put inside the mould having bottom plate in position.

Then, the cake is pressed by top cover. After pressing is over,

the bottom plate pushes out the stamped cake out of the

mould by its own mechnical arrangement. The entire pressing

and pushing out operations are done by pressing a pedal kept

under the table on which all other parts of stamping (discussed)

system are mechanically arranged.

JET SAPONIFICATION PROCESS

In this process, the saponification kettle is a two

compartment vessel. In the first compartment, proportional

amount of fat and caustic soda solution containing salt are

atomized and sprayed with the help of three way jet of steam.

Then the sprayed feed mixture becomes emulsified, the

condition necessary to start saponification. In the same

compartment, saponification takes place and proceeds near

to completion without addition of extra steam or agitation.

A holding time determined by the height of weir is allowed

in the first chamber. Then, swelled contents spill over into

the second compartment where live steam may be added to

complete saponification. As mentioned before, saponification

is nearly completed by exothermic heat of reaction.

GLYCERINE RECOVERY

Industries making soap by full-boiling process have

glycerine recovery section. Though production details of

glycerine does not fall under the purview of soap manufacture,

a general description of the recovery process of glycerine from

spont soap lyes is included here.

Spent lye contains about 3 to 8 percent glycerine, 5 to

15 percent sodium chloride, and small quantities of caustic

soda, soap, fatty acids and other organic impurities.

The hot lye is first cooled and allowed to settle. Much

of the soap is removed by settling. Then, the lye is treated

with hydrochloric acid to reduce alkalinity and also with ferric

chloride solution of such an amount (determined by separate

test) to give maximum precipitation of hydroxyl ions and of

soap. It is found that about 2.5 kg. of ferric chloride is needed

per 1000 kg of lye. Low grade lye needs additional 0.5 kg.

of aluminum sulphate per 1000 kg. of lye for complete removal.

A little quantity of hydrochloric acid is added to make the

lye just acidic. After thorough agitation, the lye is filter pressed

in warm condition. The filtrate is again treated with caustic

soda to make the lye just alkaline. It is filtered again. This

lye contains about 4 to 10 percent glycerine and 11 to 18

percent salt.

WASHING SOAP USING SOAP STOCK AS MAIN FATTY

RAW MATERIAL

The foots or soap stock is obtained as byproduct in the

alkali refining of vegetable oils, mainly cottonseed oil. Other

oil foots may be available depending upon refining units.

Sodium salts of fatty acids admixed with unreacted oil and

water and other impurities are its constituents. It is coloured

dark, semi-solid muddy consistency.

Its composition are generally given as

Perfume –    0.05

Water –         40-50 percent

Fatty matter –        35-60 percent

Rest –          other impurities

Before finalising the charge of soap stock for making soap,

it is necessary to determine the total fatty acids (T.F.A.) of

soap stock or acidulated soap stock. The method of

determination of T.F.A. is described below.

A measured quantity of sample is saponified in an alcoholic

solution using excess sodium hydroxide. The product of

reaction is then dried and re-dissolved in water. The aqueous

solution is then acidified with dilute hydrochloric acid to free

the fatty acids which are then extracted with petroleum ether.

The solvent is removed by distillation. The residue, the fatty

acids are dried at 100°C and weighed to get total quantity

T.F.A.

TOILET SOAP

Toilet soap should be well saponified product possibly

containing no free alkali. It is difficult to adjust the proportions

of alkali and fats to obtain complete saponification. The highly

reacted soap produced by full-boiled process contains upto

0.1 percent free alkali and that produced by cold-made/semiboiled

processes may contain upto 0.3 percent free alkali.

The soap should not cause any irritation to the skin. It

should be smooth.

The soap should remain dry through absorbing moisture

at the surface layer thereby, helping the hard soap solubilized

desirably. This is done by crystal modification of the soap

crystals. Soap with  phase predominating serves the above

purpose. Soap which is allowed to solidify rapidly is harder

than the soap cooled more slowly.

The soap are best made from coconut oil and tallow.

Coconut oil which may be partly substituted by other oils

of lauric acid group (palm kernel oil, babassunut oil) is used

to the extent of upto 30 percent in general. In some

formulations, coconut oil is used upto 50 percent. In case

of lower grade soaps, the remainder tallow may be substituted

by light coloured palm oil. Other oils like groundnut oil, castor

oil, olive oil, lard etc., in their purified and bleached form

may be used to some extent. Some toilet soaps contain free

fatty acids upto the extent of 7 percent.

 

The moisture content of soaps vary from 12 to 35 percent

depending upon the method of production. Semi-boiled/coldmade

process soaps contain all amount of glycerol separated

during saponification, where as glycerol content of full-boiled

soaps is not greater than 0.75 percent.

Toilet soap does not contain any builders. It contains only

pure soap and water. Some soaps may contain less than 1

percent titanium dioxide or zinc oxide as white pigments.

Unmilled toilet soaps usually contain 0.5 to 2 percent salt

(for hardening) sodium hydrosulphite, sodium thiosulphate

as preservatives.

Milling process helps to produce soaps with bright polished

surface finish with intimately perfumed and coloured.

Although most of the toilet soaps are milled product and

made from full-boiled soap-base, a good deal of these soaps

are made by small manufacturers following semi-boiled process

and form-made finish. Unmilled toilet soaps are also made

in big industries.

Milled Finished Soap

The saponified mass from the mixing pan at 60-65°C as

mentioned, is transformed into thin sheet by roller to make

ribbons which are dried by conveying through drier, then

chips are milled, then mixed with perfumes and stabilizer in

amalgamator, then through plodder and extruded in

continuous bar which is cut into cakes, stamped, wrapped

and packed (all this operations are described previously as

milling process or in making milled toilet soap from neat

soap).

 

Mottled Soap

The coloured streaks, for example, blue in a mottled soap

are interspread with a white, cream or any other light colour

are due to the presence of a small amount (25 percent) or

as desired, of ultramarine blue added to the soap kettle before

the soap is finished. Adding excess alkali, the niger is kept

unseparated from the soap and as such poured in the frames

in the form of two distinct but intermingled phases, only one

of which contains colouring matter. The final appearance of

the soap is developed by very slow cooling in the frames.

The mottled soaps are also prepared by hand mixing

carefully of a coloured and uncoloured base.

Mottled Soap

The coloured streaks, for example, blue in a mottled soap

are interspread with a white, cream or any other light colour

are due to the presence of a small amount (25 percent) or

as desired, of ultramarine blue added to the soap kettle before

the soap is finished. Adding excess alkali, the niger is kept

unseparated from the soap and as such poured in the frames

in the form of two distinct but intermingled phases, only one

of which contains colouring matter. The final appearance of

the soap is developed by very slow cooling in the frames.

The mottled soaps are also prepared by hand mixing

carefully of a coloured and uncoloured base.

 

TECHNOLOGY OF SOAP MANUFACTURING

Techniques

The technique of soapmaking varies with production

needs. In the cottage sector, oils and liquid caustic are boiled

together in a Kadahi (a hemispherical vessel) heated by coal

or wood. Glycerol is retained in the soap.

On a slightly larger scale, oils and the caustic soda are

boiled in kettles of 15 to 25 tonnes capacity. Glycerol is

discarded along with the lye or sold to glycerine manufacturers

after concentration. On a still larger scale, open steam boiling

in larger kettles of 60 tonnes capacity or more is carried out

followed by glycerol recovery.

If the output rate is of the order of 100 tonnes or more

per day, continuous soap making processess are followed

and glycerol is recovered. Instead of oils, a blend of fatty

acids may also be used for saponification.

Saponification Methods and Equipment in the

Organized Sector Traditional method

The traditional method followed by the organized sector

for making soap is to boil together a running steam of oil

and caustic soda solution in a soap kettle fitted with open

steam coils. The temperature is usually in the range of 40-

450C, while caustic soda solution is used at ordinary

temperature. As the oil and the liquid caustic are run in,

the steam is allowed to flow. Saponification is slow in the

beginning, particularly if the oil has low FFA content (5-6%),

but the soap formed initially acts as a medium for further

saponification to take place more rapidly. The reaction slows

down as the cocentration of the oil decreases.

 

Equipment for batch soapmaking

The conventional batch equipments used for making soap

comprise kettles or pans that are either square or circular

in cross section. At the bottom, perforated steam coils are

fitted inside. Capacities range from 50 to 100 tonnes of neat

soap in large-scale operations, and from 6 to 10 tonnes in

small scale ones. The vessels are provided with two outlets,

one at the bottom and another a short distance from the

bottom on the side. The outlet at the bottom is used for the

withdrawal of lye and nigre, and the outlet on the side for

neat soap. A skimmer pipe, operated by a chain on a winch

is fitted to the vessel to facilitate withdrawal of soap from

any level. Overhead takes and piping are provided for the

storage of oil blends, caustic soda solution, brine and water.

Equipment for batch soapmaking

The conventional batch equipments used for making soap

comprise kettles or pans that are either square or circular

in cross section. At the bottom, perforated steam coils are

fitted inside. Capacities range from 50 to 100 tonnes of neat

soap in large-scale operations, and from 6 to 10 tonnes in

small scale ones. The vessels are provided with two outlets,

one at the bottom and another a short distance from the

bottom on the side. The outlet at the bottom is used for the

withdrawal of lye and nigre, and the outlet on the side for

neat soap. A skimmer pipe, operated by a chain on a winch

is fitted to the vessel to facilitate withdrawal of soap from

any level. Overhead takes and piping are provided for the

storage of oil blends, caustic soda solution, brine and water.

Equipment for batch soapmaking

The conventional batch equipments used for making soap

comprise kettles or pans that are either square or circular

in cross section. At the bottom, perforated steam coils are

fitted inside. Capacities range from 50 to 100 tonnes of neat

soap in large-scale operations, and from 6 to 10 tonnes in

small scale ones. The vessels are provided with two outlets,

one at the bottom and another a short distance from the

bottom on the side. The outlet at the bottom is used for the

withdrawal of lye and nigre, and the outlet on the side for

neat soap. A skimmer pipe, operated by a chain on a winch

is fitted to the vessel to facilitate withdrawal of soap from

any level. Overhead takes and piping are provided for the

storage of oil blends, caustic soda solution, brine and water.

 

MANAGEMENT OF SOAP FACTORIES

 

TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY

Introduction

Technical efficiency is a yard-stick for measuring the

efficiency of all factory operations in terms of certain important

parameters. These are yields, wastages, give away, material

usage, services usage, machine output, and productivity. By

taking these factors into consideration it is possible to

calculate the financial implications of factory inefficiencies

and take steps to overcome them. The yard sticks for

measuring technical efficiencies are common for soaps,

detergent powders and detergent cakes.

Yield

Yield refers to the ratio of output of the finished products,

to the input of the raw material calculated on a common

base. Yields are normally worked out every month on the

basis of stock taking. Stock taking days are chosen well in

advance so that adequate preparations can be made. In the

absence of such preparations stock taking can prove unreliable

especially in large establishments, and errors can creep in

leading to distortion of figures.

Preparations include, minimising the stock in process,

withdrawing lyes from soap pans for estimating the stock of

soap, eliminating leaks in pipes and tanks, checking

calibrations and emptying tanks.

Once the yields are known, they should be compared

against targets and deviations, if any, should be investigated

and remedial measures should be taken. Ideally, yields should

be 100% but there are always losses in the process that

reduce the figure to less than 100%.

Glycerol yield

Glycerine yield is a ratio of the output to input. The

output is obtained by analysing the products in process and

finished products during the month end stock taking. The

input in obtained from the oils used in soap-making. Glycerine

losses occur from:

(a) Bleaching of oils

(b) Glycerine left in soap

(c) Glycerine lye discarded from scrap soap

(d) Muddy lye discarded

(e) Sludge produced during lye treatment

(f) Evaporation of lye

Glycerine lost during bleaching depends on the bleaching

earth usage and the nature of chemical treatment for colour

reduction. Some glycerine is always left in the soap depending

on the techniques used for washing soap, to free it from

glycerol after saponification of the oils. When scrap soap is

re-processed, the residual glycerol is lost. Any glycerol lye

that cannot be used, e.g. dirty lye, is discarded and glycerol

is lost along with it. Similarly, during the first and second

lye treatment, the sludge generated in the process is discarded

and some glycerine loss also take place. Finally, during

evaporation, some glycerine is lost through entertainment

into the vacuum system. Typical figures for losses under the

various categories are:

 

The actual yield should thus, be 100–6.5 = 93.5% for

crude glycerine. This is a good starting point and can be

improved with tighter controls.

The yield for refined glycerine starting with crude glycerine

should be 96% for a start allowing for 4% loss during

distillation via the vacuum system, via residues from

distillation still discarded and due to polymerisation during

distillation. The yield applies to the Scott-Unilever distillation

still already mentioned.

A reliable method to check losses is to prepare the process

specification and process control procedures and adhere

strictly to the laid down procedures, backed up by laboratory

analysis. All operations should be performed in a manner

so as to maximise yields and eliminate undue losses.

 

Over/under usage of materials

The over/under usage of chemicals used in soaps and

detergent powders and cakes is arrived, at from the theoretical

usage on the basis of the product specification and the actual

consumption. A variation of up to 2% is permissible and

wider variations call for investigations. High value items, such

as perfumes, fluorescer, polyphosphates etc. require closer

control.

In the case of packaging materials, the wastage depends

upon a number of factors, e.g. if the wrapping of soap is

done manually there is practically no wastage whereas, if

done on the machine a wastage factor is involved. The extent

of wastage depends on the complexity of the packaging

operation and the quality of the wrappers.

For wrappers, laminates and cartons, the target over usage

is in the range of 2–6% and for outer boxes, up to 1%.

For engineering materials, the main yardstick apart from

the usual controls on receipts and issues, is the total amount

spent on maintenance. One way of expressing this is to

calculate the ratio of repairs to the replacement cost of plant

and machinery. A reasonable figure is 5% on an average.

One way to control over/under usage of items is to operate

on low stocks, requisition materials for short periods, and

to ensure that materials are used by weight. Spot checks

should also be made to ascertain the contents of bags in

which the materials are received. Weekly departmental stock

taking of the various raw materials would help in controlling

usage.

QUALITY ASSURANCE

Introduction

Quality assurance (QA) signifies that a product that is

well defined in all its attributes and is superior to competitive

products reaches the consumer in the same form in which

it was originally produced. As this may not always be true,

efforts are made to ensure that the risk of sub-standard

product getting to the point of sale is at an agreed quantifiable

level. The QA programme provides safeguards at each stage

during the production through distribution until the product

reaches the consumer.

Conventional Approach to Quality

In a factory, the number of units produced is the prime

consideration and usually all efforts are directed towards

quantity rather than quality. The factory personnel are

generally ill informed about the fate of the product after it

leaves the factory. Although quality of the product can be

controlled, it has been seen that this does not prevent the

production and marketing of sub-standard products.

Deferioration may occur by the time the consumer purchases

it.

Recommended Approach to Quality

In order to safeguard the product quality and the

consumer’s interests, the following steps are proposed:

1. Each company must clearly define its policy on quality.

2. There should be two quality functions within a

company. One for manufacturing quality and the

other—a broader responsibility across the company

reporting to the board. The latter function would cover

analysis based on shop pick-up of Company and

competitor brands.

3. Production departments must assume full

responsibility for quality so that the QC department

may be monitoring key data.

4. For each brand, the quality objectives and the key

variables should be defined for control during the

manufacturing process.

 

PROJECT PROFILES

Project Estimation & its Reliability

Preparation of project cost estimates is a complex task.

Reliability of the estimate depends not only on the accuracy

of the date considered, but on a number of other influencing

factors like:

• Scope, definitions of terms used & cost elements.

• Accuracy of data used.

• Technique of estimation & status of over all knowledge.

• Relevance of cost data factors under the situation.

• Source of relevant data & data-bank available.

• Basis of choosing the basic figures & demand of used

technology.

• Estimator’s skill, experience & visualising/decision

making capability.

• Whether or not, a check list has been prepared for

cross-checking the accuracy of the budgeted estimates.

Except some unpredictable & normally uncontrollable

factors, like currency fluctuations, inflation, change in

government policies leading to varying project implementation

and monitoring, other visibly understandable factors like

existing, market conditions & general trends should be

judiciously considered besides well judged data available from

the data-bank.

OTHER FIXED ASSETS

The term “Other Fixed Assets’, used in the computation

of Project cost, includes:

(I) Office equipment & Furnitures

(II) Cost of electrifications, electric systems, and circuits,

upto various use point of the plant, but not the power

transformer of DC, Sets etc.,

(III) Technical Know-How costs/free payable,

(IV) Preliminary expenses, etc. SSI registration, DGTD

registration/L.I./L.L. Obtaining expenses, Fees for

Foreign collaboration searching & procedurally

establishing, processing feed for MOU approval by SIA,

Department of industries, application & processing fees

for grant of import permissions, to import capital goods,

components, raw materials, etc. for actual

consumption, RBI clearance, etc.

(V) Pre-operative expenses include the over all supervisory

& material & labour costs, occurring during irrection

& commissioning of plant & machinery which was

done by the team of plant suppliers. For such service

they change a reasonable sum, in addition to the cost

of plant & machineries + Net expense occurred in

Trial-run operation.

(VI) Personnal training (if necessary)

(VII) Contingencies, foundation works etc.

INCENTIVES

Incentives include all those monetary benefits which are

passed on to the entrepreneurs/firms/industrial units, in terms

of cash paid or exemptions from paying certain taxes/duties

under specific industrial laws, as a result of certain

extraordinary conditions declared through press notes or

amendments in the prevailing rule or by adding extra clause

or by omitting certain conditions from the fundamental law.

Exemptions from paying sales taxes upto a certain period,

exemptions from paying excise duties (ED) on purchase of

excisable items for industrial consumption upto a certain

amount or non-payment of ED on the industrial/trading units

sales upto certain turnover limits etc., are the examples of

direct incentives automatically coming to the unit concerned.

Certain other incentives on the lines of exemption are

achieved by the firm by declaring itself covered under certain

provisions of the Government like MODVAT scheme, or an

ancillary unit, etc.

Various incentives relating to export promotion and on

imports of capital goods, raw-materials, components & spares,

that go into export productions, are quite prominent incentives

which have been separately dealt elsewhere in this book.

TURN OVER (P.A.)

In the brief financial summary of projects dealt in this

book, the term ‘Turn over’ means all the earnings of the firm

in a specified year by way of (i) marketing of its products,

(ii) recovery from sales or re-use or re-cycling of the industrial

wastes, (iii) sales of by-products, (iv) receipts from sale of its

assets or unaccounted stock, etc.

However, turn over has been anticipated on the assumption

that the plant operates at 100% capacity utilization and the

market rates prevailing today will remain unchanged.

DEPRECIATIONS

The rates of depreciations, on various fixed assets, allowed

by the government for deductions by the firm are as under:

(i) On non-industrial buildings @ 5.0% p.a.

(ii) On industrial buildings @ 10% p.a.

(iii) On plant & machineries & accessories employed in

production of the products, their testings, testings of

raw materials, material handling, control devices,

supporting machines e.g. toolroom, etc. @ 25% p.a.

(iv) Energy saving/regulating/generating equipments @

50% p.a.

(v) On office equipments & furnitures @10% p.a.

Note: Pollution treatment equipments have throughout

the book been considered to be depreciating at the same rate

as the main plant & machinery.

INTEREST

Interest on the project cost has been considered @20%

p.a. (average in case of all the projects considered in this

book.

This may not be the exact position in a variety of cases.

But, what so ever, this is only an estimation & not the exact

case. Since, so many other assumptions have also appeared

in the process of project estimation, hence it is felt that

whatever little difference will surface in the real project

execution & its commercial operation, will cancel out each

other, and the standard costing will not be affected.

Edge Runners

The edge runners are distinct from crushing machines

which grind by a compressive force. This machine uses also,

a shearing force in addition to crushing. This type of mill has

been utilized for many years and consists of one or more

heavy rolls, made of granite or steel, fixed on a horizontal

shaft and caused to rotate over a bed or track, also of steel

or granite. Since the outside of the roll travels over a greater

distance than the inside, there is a constant slip of shear.

The charge continually moved by scrappers into the path of

the rolls, and when grinding is complete, it is discharged

through a door in the base of the mill.


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