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The Complete Technology Book on Dyes & Dye Intermediates (2nd Edition)


The Complete Technology Book on Dyes & Dye Intermediates (2nd Edition)

Author: Dr. Himadri Panda
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9788194737957
Code: NI91
Pages: 544
Price: Rs. 1,995.00   US$ 52.95

Published: 2021
Usually ships within 5 days

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Dyeing is the process of imparting colours to a textile material. Different classes of dyes are used for different types of fiber and at different stages of the textile production process, from loose fibres through yarn and cloth to completed garments. Dyes are any substance, natural or synthetic, used to colour various materials, and have wide industry applications ranging textiles, leather, and food, paper etc. They are available in widest ranges for different applications like acid dyes for wool and nylon, direct dyes for cotton, etc. Dyes and its intermediates are specifically used to make the textiles decorative and attractive. At present, India contributes about 6% of the share in the global market with a CAGR of more than 15% in the last decade. The organized sector dominates, with 65% share of the total market, while the unorganized sector controls the remaining 35% of the market. The demand for dyes and dye intermediates is expected to grow at around 6%, backed by strong demand from the textiles, leather, and inks industries. Dyestuff sector is one of the core chemical industries in India. It is also the second highest export segment in chemical industry. The major users of dyes in India are textiles, paper, plastics, printing ink and foodstuffs. The textiles sector consumes around 80% of the total production due to high demand for polyester and cotton, globally. Globally the dyestuffs industry has seen an impressive growth.
This book majorly deals with classification & nomenclature of dyes, commercial form of dyes, properties, formulae, applications of dyes, manufacturing process of dye intermediates, plant and machinery used etc. The major contents of the book are diazotization, coupling, azo coupling, oxidative coupling, anthraxquinone dyes; disperse dyes, dispersion, effect of dispersing agents etc.
Due to increasing growth of textile industries, demand of dyes and dye Intermediates are also increasing very fast in domestic as well as in global market. The book gives stress on syntheses of different types of dyes and dye Intermediates. The formulae and processes have been described in very proper way. Professionals, corporate houses and new entrepreneurs will find this book very useful.

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1. The Dyes and Dye Intermediate Industry
What are Dyes and Dye Intermediates?
Classification of Dyes
Prices of Raw Materials
Competition from Other Developing Countries
Unit Processes and Operations
Waste Generation
Liquid Waste
Solid Waste
Gaseous Emissions
The Concept of Cleaner Production
Benefits of Cleaner Production
How to Undertake Cleaner Production:
An Introduction to Cleaner Production Assessments
Cleaner Production Techniques
Technology Modification
Recovery and Recycling
Material Recovery
Recovery of By-products
Product Modification
Energy Conservation
Best Practices in Unit Operations and Processes
Best Practices in Isolation
Best Practices in Filtration
Best Practices in Blending
2. Azo Dyes
Azo Coupling
Oxidative Coupling
Classification of Azo Dyes
Primary Disazo Dyes
Secondary Disazo Dyes
Miscellaneous Disazo Dyes
Types of Azo Dyes : Structures,
Application, Uses
Methods of Manufacture
Manufacture Congo Red
Diazotization of Benzidine
First Coupling
Second Coupling
Third Coupling
Diazotization of Benzidine
Diazotization of Dianisidine
Direct Light Fast Blue 4GH
Plant for Azo Dyes
Important Notes for Diazotization and Coupling
Methods of Analysis of Azo Dyes
Methods of Analysis of Azo Dyes
Nitric Acid Split
Identification of Arylamines in Cleavage Products
Identification of Diamines in Cleavage Products
Blowout Method
Identification of Coupling Components
Assay Methods
Salt Test
Adsorption Chromatography
Application Method
Titanous Chloride Reduction
Preparation of Methylene Blue Solution
Absorption Spectrophotometry
Preparation of Ferric Ammonium Sulfate
Direct Reduction Method
3. Reactive Dyes
Development of Reactive Dyes
Chromophoric System
The Bridging Group
The Reactive System
Reactive Dyes for Cellulosic Materials, Wool & Nylon
Cellulosic Materials
Reactive Systems Based on Nucleophilic Substitution
Reactive Systems Based on Nucleophilic Addition
Reactive System Based on Both
Nucleophilic Addition and Substitution
Dyes that React with Fibers Under Acid Conditions
Polyfunction Fixing Agents from Covalent Bonds
with Both the Dyestuff and the Substrate
Dyes Containing several Reactive Groups
Reactive Systems Based on Nucleophilic Substitution
Reactive Systems Based on Nucleophilic Addition
Reactive Systems Based on Both Nucleophilic
Addition and Substitution
Reactions Involving Disulfide Bonds
Reactions Involving Modified Wool
Reactive Dyes for Nylon
Classification of Reactive Dyes
Vinyl Sulfone Reactive Dyes
Tetrachloro Pyrimidine Dyes
Chemistry of tetrachloropyrimidines
Reactive Dyes Based on Epoxides
Other types of Reactive Dyes
Reactivity of Different Types of Reactive Dyes
Purification of Reactive Dyes
Advantages and Limitations of Reactive Dyes
Fabric Preparation
Washing off
New Development of Reactive Dyes
Kayacelon Reaction Dyes
Cibacron C Dyes
Procion Supra Dyes of (I.C.I.)
Procion HEXL Dyes
Prociline N Dyes
Manufacturing Processes
Acetylation of H Acid
Diazotisation of Tobias Acid
Reactive Dyes with Trichloropyrimidine as
Reactive Group
Reactive Dyes with 2, 3-Dichloroquin-oxaline
-6-Carbonyl Chloride as Reactive Group
Reactive Dyes with Chloroacetyl as
Reactive Group
Reactive Dyes with 6-amino-2-chlorobenzo-thia-zole-5
Sulphonic Acid as Reactive Group
Control Test
Properties of Cynuric Chloride
Chlorosulfonic Acid
Commercial Grades and Specificaion of
Chlorosulphonic Acid
Identification of Reactive Dyes
4. Anthraquinone Dyes
Disperse Dyes
Effect of Dispersing Agents
Levelling Agents
Disperse Dyes in the Dye Bath
Disperse Dyes in the Fibre
Sensitivity to Metal
Solacet Dyes (Water Soluble)
Current Research Work
Manufacturing Processes
Emulsion of Diphenylamine
Diazontisation of Aniline
Acid Pasting and Dispersion
Treatment with Hydrochloric Acid
Aminoanthraquinone Dyes
Anthrarufin and Chrysazin Derivatives
Vat Dyes
Aminoanthraquinone Anthramides
Ring Closure with Aluminium Chloride
Ring Closure with Titanium Tetrachloride
Ring Closure with Sulphuric Acid
Ring Closure with Potassium Hydroxide
Characterisation of Anthrimides and
Anthraquinone Carbozoles
Spectral Differentiation
C = O Stretching and NH Deformation Vibrations
Aminoanthraquinone Indanthrones
Vat Paste
Manufacturing of Vat Paste
Manufacturing Process
Standarisation of Vat Dyestuffs
Identification of Vat Dyes
5. Acid Dyes
Sample Acid Dyes
Mordant Acid Dyes
Premettalized Acid Dyes
Manufacturing Processes
Mordant Dyes
Heat transfer Dyes
Economic Aspects
6. Basic Dyes
Classification of Basic Dyes
Manufacturing Processes
Economic Aspects
Health and Safety Factors
Methods of Analysis
Dyes on Substrates
Assay Methods
Titration Methods
Miscellanous Assay Methods
Application Methods
Determination of Impurities
7. Sulfur Dyes
Chemical Properties
Manufacturing Process
Grain Standarisation
Economic Aspects
Commercial Forms of Sulfur Dyes
Health and Safety Factors
8. Cyanine Dyes
Examples of Nuclie Occuring in Important
Cyanine Dyes
Photophysical Properties
Synthesis of Cyanines and Related Dyes
Reactivity of Cyanine Dyes
Uses and Suppliers
9. Sensitizing Dyes
Sensitization Wavelength and Efficiency
Structural Classes of Spectral Sensitizers
Spectral Sensitization of Silver Halides
Spectral Sensitization of Inorganic and
Organic Solids
Spectral Sensitization of Photoresists,
Photopoly, and Photopolymerization
10. Dye Intermediates
Sources of Raw Material
List of Intermediates, Nomenclature;
Auxiliary Agents
Equipment and Manufacture
Chemistry of Dye Intermediates
Electrophilic Substitution
Transformation of Primary
Substitution Products
Examples of the Most Important
Reactions Sulfonation
Alkeali Fusion
Nucleophilic Replacement of Activated CL
Special Reactions and Rearrangements
Benzidine Rearrangement
Bucherer Reaction
Kolbe-Schmitt Reaction
Project Briefs
Aceto Acetanilide
2-Amino Anthraquinone
1-Hydroxy Anthraquinone
1-Hydroxy Anthraquinone
1:4 Dihidroxy Anthraquinone (Quinizarine)
1:4 Diamino Anthraquinone
2-Methyl Anthraquinone
Manufacturing Process
Benzidinc Derivatines
Chicago Acid and Peri Acid
Cyanuric Chloride
Gamma Acid
H Acid
Laurant’s Acid
Metanilic Acid
Orthanilic Acid
R Salt/R Acid
Sulfanilic Acid
Tobias Acid
Vinyl Sulfone
o-Phenylene Diamine
o-And P-Nitrochlorobezenc
1-Phenyl 3-Methyl 5-Pyrazolonc
1-Amino-2-Naphthol-4-Sulphonic Acid
Schaefeer’s Acid
Alkali Fusion of Amino J-Acid
N-Phenyl J-Acid
11. Photographs of Machinery with
Suppliers Contact Details
Agitator Reaction Vessel
Limpet Coil Reaction Vessels
Reactor Vessel
Melting Tank
Storage Tank
Extractor Machine
Hydro Extractor
Dye Centrifuge Machine
Dyes Filter Press
Dye Ball Mill
Dye Mixing Machine
Dyes Pulverizer Machine
Tray Dryer
Fusion Chamber
Vacuum Distillation Plant
Dyes Packing Machine
Diesel Generator Set
12. Plant Layout and Process
Flow Chart & Diagram

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