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Best Business Opportunities in Syria, Middle East - Identification and Selection of right Project, Thrust areas for Investment, Industry Startup and Entrepreneurship

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Low Carbon Ferro Manganese and Ferro Chrome (Through Alumina Thermic Process) - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials

Manganese is used in metallurgical industries in the form of ferro manganese. Ferro manganese contains about 80% Mn and 20% Fe. Generally ferro manganese is produced in blast furnace or an electric furnace. The high carbon ferromanganese (7.5% C, 74 80 % Mn & balance Fe) is the most important grade of ferromanganese Ferrochrome contains chromium as a major alloying element. With low carbon content, high chromium steels (Cr.12%) are corrosion resistant. With high carbon content, chromium raises the abrasion and wear resistance. Ferro Chrome is an alloy of chromium and iron containing between 50% and 70% chromium. The ferrochrome is produced by electric arc melting of chromites and chromium ore. Uses & Applications Low carbon Ferro manganese is widely used in the manufacturing of tool steels, alloys steel & structural steels. Ferromanganese is widely used in the manufacture of tool steels (up to 0.4% Mn) and structural steel (up to 0.6% Mn) and also of special steels with a high manganese content (up to 12 to 14%) Mn), as well as an alloying addition. Silcomanganese ferro alloy is used as a blocking agent to prevent the reaction of carbon & oxygen in Steel. Ferro Chrome with chrome content below 56% is known as charge chrome and produced from a chrome containing ore with a lower chrome content. Alternatively, High Carbon Ferro Chrome produced from higher grade ore, is more commonly used in specialist applications such as engineering steels. Low carbon Ferro Chrome is used during steel production to correct chrome percentages, without causing undesirable variations in the carbon or trace element percentages. Market Survey Ferro alloy production is very power intensive, forming between 40 and 70 per cent of the total production cost. Manganese alloy is the largest produced ferro alloy in the world with a share of about 41% of the global production of ferro alloys. Manganese is an essential requisite for iron and steel production owing to its capability for sulphur fixing, de oxidizing and good alloying properties. Production of manganese ferro alloys is dominated by China, accounting for nearly half of worldwide production from a combination of domestic low grade manganese ores and imported high grade ores. The steel industry also requires manganese alloys with less carbon than that contained in standard ferromanganese. India is exporting ferromanganese ferrosilicon & other bulk and noble alloys to various countries like FR Germany, France, Japan, Columbia, Dominican Rep, Italy, Netherlands, Singapore, Sweden, U.K., U.S.A. and others. The proposals are for an increase in import duties for all Ferro Alloys from 5% to 7.5% excluding Ferro Nickel and the removal of duties on raw materials and ores used in the production of Ferro Alloys. Current duties for imported raw materials range from 2.5% to 7.5%. There is a very good scope for this product and it is the appropriate time for new entrepreneurs to venture into this field. Few Indian Major Players are as under:to Aarti Steels Ltd. Adhunik Metaliks Ltd. Alok Ferro Alloys Ltd. Andhra Ferro Alloys Ltd. Bhaskar Shrachi Alloys Ltd. Bishwanath Ferro Alloys Ltd. Castron Technologies Ltd. Essel Mining & Inds. Ltd. Facor Alloys Ltd. Hindustan Ferro & Inds. Ltd. Hira Ferro Alloys Ltd. Idcol Ferro Chrome & Alloys Ltd. Jeypore Sugar Co. Ltd. M O I L Ltd. Maharashtra Elektrosmelt Ltd. Monnet Industries Ltd. Nagpur Power & Inds. Ltd. Natural Sugar & Allied Inds. Ltd. Nava Bharat Ventures Ltd. Orde Industries Ltd. R G Foundry Forge Ltd. Rohit Ferro Tech Ltd. S A L Steel Ltd. S K M Steels Ltd. Sarda Energy & Minerals Ltd. Shri Girija Smelters Ltd. Shyam Ferro Alloys Ltd. Sova Ispat Alloys (Mega Projects) Ltd. Sova Ispat Alloys Ltd. Srinivasa Ferro Alloys Ltd. T S Alloys Ltd. Tata Steel Ltd. Universal Ferro & Allied Chemicals Ltd. V B C Ferro Alloys Ltd. Visa Steel Ltd.
Plant capacity: 24 MT/DayPlant & machinery: 803 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : Rs. 2695 Lakhs
Return: 56.00%Break even: 52.00%
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Active Pharma Ingredients(API) - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

An active ingredient (AI) is the substance in a pharmaceutical drug or a pesticide that is biologically active. The similar terms active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and bulk active are also used in medicine, and the term active substance may be used for pesticide formulations. Some medications and pesticide products may contain more than one active ingredient. A dosage form: the API, which is the drug itself; and an excipient, which is the substance of the tablet, or the liquid the API is suspended in, or other material that is pharmaceutically inert. Drugs are chosen primarily for their active ingredients. The Indian pharmaceutical industry also needs to take advantage of the recent advances in biotechnology and information technology. The future of the industry will be determined by how well it markets its products to several regions and distributes risks, its forward and backward integration capabilities, its R&D, its consolidation through mergers and acquisitions, co-marketing and licensing agreements. Uses and Applications API like Cephalexin is used to treat a number of infections including: otitis media, streptococcal pharyngitis, bone and joint infections, pneumonia, cellulitis, and urinary tract infections. It may be used to prevent bacterial endocarditis. Amoxicillin is used in the treatment of a number of infections, including acute otitis media, Streptococcal pharyngitis, pneumonia, skin infections, urinary-tract infections, Salmonella, lyme disease, and chlamydia infections. It is also used to prevent bacterial endocarditis in high-risk people who are having dental work done, to prevent strep pneumococus infections in those without spleens, and for both the prevention and the treatment of anthrax. Ibuprofen is used primarily for fever, pain, dysmenorrhea and inflammatory diseases such asrheumatoid arthritis. It is also used for pericarditis and patent ductus arteriosus. Market Survey The demand for pharmaceutical products in India is significant and is driven by low drug penetration, rising middle-class & disposable income, increased government & private spending on healthcare infrastructure, increasing medical insurance penetration etc. India based pharmaceutical companies are not only catering to the domestic market and fulfilling the country’s demands, they are also exporting to around 220 countries. They are exporting high quality, low cost drugs to countries such as the US, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Ukraine, Vietnam, and more. The Indian pharmaceutical industry is the fourth largest in the world in terms of volume of output and thirteenth in domestic demand. However, the Indian industry, valued at USD 17 bn in represented just over 1% of the global pharmaceutical industry (USD 1700 bn) in value terms. The domestic market is estimated at Rs 680 bn. Few Major Players are as under:- Cipla Ranbaxy Lab Dr Reddy's Labs Sun Pharma Lupin Ltd Aurobindo Pharma Piramal Health Cadila Health Matrix Labs Wockhardt
Plant capacity: Cephalexin Monohydrate: 500 Kgs/Day, Ampicillin Trihydrate: 500 Kgs/Day,Ibuprofen: 500 Kgs/DayPlant & machinery: Rs.448 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost Of Project : Rs.958 Lakhs
Return: 46.00%Break even: 44.00%
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Amino Acid Metal Chelates for Agriculture Use (Zinc, Ferrous, Copper, Manganese, Magnesium, Calcium) - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery

Amino acid chelates consists of a metal ion comprising iron, zinc, manganese, magnesium, copper, calcium and mixtures thereof. These cheltaes are mostly used in nutrients, food supplements and fertilizers. The nutrients in chelated form, helps quick & easy absorption. Amino acid chelates represent a stable bonding agent that attaches to mineral molecules to aid absorption. All living things depend on amino acids, often called the building blocks of protein. This essential molecule produces energy needed to survive. Synthetic chelates only attach to metals, such as copper, zinc and iron. Natural amino acid chelates bind to metallic and inorganic minerals, including calcium, phosphate, and potassium. In order for a compound to be called a true chelating agent, it must have certain chemical characteristics. This chelating compound must consist of at least two sites capable of donating electrons (coordinate covalent bond) to the metal it chelates. As with organic acids, amino acid compounds also play a role in mineral uptake into plant tissue, because of the increase permeability effect of the amino acid on the cuticle. Market Survey The saturated market Micronutrient deficiencies are major constraints in crop production in the present day agricultural programmes. Micronutrient fertilizers are gaining importance day by day and would play a major role in bringing stability and sustainability in the production of food grains, pulses and oilseeds in the coming decade. Demand for chelating agents worldwide is expected to continue its steady growth over the coming years. While more than 70% of the global chelates demand comes from household and industrial cleaners, water treatment, and pulp and paper industries, chelates are finding increasing use in agriculture and medicine. New markets in Asia-Pacific and South America for water treatment and personal care sectors bode well for the chelates market. Biodegradable chelating agents are likely to capture a significant share of the chelating agents market in the coming years, owing to potential health and environmental hazards associated with the use of non-biodegradable organic chelating compounds. Few Major Players are as under:- Chambal Fertilisers & Chemicals Ltd. Crystal Phosphates Ltd. Deepak Fertilisers & Petrochemicals Corpn. Ltd. Gharda Chemicals Ltd. Kaveri Seed Co. Ltd. Kisan Plant Biotech Ltd. Maharashtra Agro-Inds. Devp. Corpn. Ltd. Nagarjuna Agrichem Ltd. Nava-Barat Fertilizers Ltd. Rallis India Ltd. Recon Agrotech Ltd. Rohanna Agri Ltd. Romeda Chemicals Ltd. Sivashakthi Bio Planttec Ltd. Technico Agri Sciences Ltd. Vijay Remedies Ltd. Capacity Zinc Amino Acid Metal Chelates : 0.5 MT/Day Ferrous Amino Acid Metal Chelates : 0.5 MT/Day Copper Amino Acid Metal Chelates : 0.5 MT/Day Manganese Amino Acid Metal Chelates : 0.5 MT/Day Magnesium Amino Acid Metal Chelates : 0.5 MT/Day Calcium Amino Acid Metal Chelates : 0.5 MT/Day
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: Rs.161 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost Of Project : Rs.502 Lakhs
Return: 41.00%Break even: 47.00%
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Oxygen and Nitrogen Gas Plant - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

Liquid oxygen must be handled with all the precaution required for safety with any cryogenic fluid. Gaseous Oxygen is authorized for shipment in cylinders tank and car and tube trailers. Liquid Oxygen is shipped as a cryogenic fluid in insulated cylinders insulated tank trucks and insulated tank cars. Gaseous Nitrogen is non corrosive and inert and may consequently contained in system constructed of any common metals and designed to withstand safely the pressure involved. At the temperature of liquid nitrogen ordinary carbon steels and most alloy steels lose their ductility and are considered unsatisfactory for liquid nitrogen service. Uses and Applications Applications of Oxygen include: It is used extensively in medicine for therapeutic purposes for suscitation in asphyxia and with other gases in anaesthesia. It is also used in high altitude flying deep sea diving, and as both an inhalant and power source in U.S apaces program. Industrial applications include its very wide utilization with acetylene, hydrogen and other fuel gases for such purposes as metal cutting welding hardening scaring cleaning and dehydrating. Oxygen helps increase the capacity of steel and iron furnaces on growing scale in the steel industry. One of its major uses is in the production of synthesis gas from coal natural gas or liquid fuel. Synthesis gas is in turn use to make gasoline methanol and ammonia. Oxygen is similarly employed in manufacturing some acetylene through partial oxidation of the hydrocarbons in methane. It is also used in the production of nitric acid, ethylene and other compounds in the chemical industry. Applications of Nitrogen include: Agitation of colour film solution in photographic processing, blanketing of oxygen sensitive liquids and of volatile liquid chemicals The deaeration of oxygen sensitive liquids The degassing of non ferrous metals It is used in food processing and packing, Inhibition of aerobic bacteria growth Magnesium reduction of aluminium scrap Pressurization of air craft tires and emergency bottles to open landing gear Purging and filling of electronic devices The purging and fillings of pipelines and related instruments and the treatment of alkyd resins in the paint industry etc. Market Survey The industrial gases industry covers several products oxygen nitrogen dissolved acety lene argon carbon dioxide helium and hydrogen. These find applications in various industries such as steel light and heavy engineering, petrochemicals and fertilisers chemicals and pharma ceuticals and food processing besides metal cutting and welding. Oxygen is a vital requirement in medicare. Steel and downstream industries use nearly three fourths of the output.Unlike western countries, where the industrial gases are mostly produced by gas companies and supplied to large industrial consumers in India most of the large consumers of gases have set up their own captive plants. With the expansion in steel petrochemicals automobiles and glass Industries, the demand for merchant gas market is on the rise. Accordingly, the industry is structured into two broad segments (a) the captive units set up by the users or by a gas producing company at the site of the user and (b) the independent market producers supplying gas in bulk or in cylinders to the users. Present Manufacturer Aarti Steels Ltd. Ahmedabad Gases Ltd. Akola Oil Inds. Ltd. Allied Steels Ltd. Arrow Oxygen Ltd. Arvin Liquid Gases Ltd. Asiatic Gases Ltd. Bhagawati Oxygen Ltd. Bhilai Engineering Corpn. Ltd. Bhilai Oxygen Ltd. Bhuruka Gases Ltd. Bombay Oxygen Corpn. Ltd. Corporate Ispat Alloys Ltd. Ellenbarrie Industrial Gases Ltd. Fertilisers & Chemicals, Travancore Ltd. General Foods Ltd. [Merged] Godavari Fertilisers & Chemicals Ltd. [Merged] Godawari Power & Ispat Ltd. Govind Poy Oxygen Ltd. Gujarat Ministeel Ltd. Hilltone Software & Gases Ltd. Hindustan Oxygen Gas Co. Ltd. Hindustan Wires Ltd. I L A C Ltd. India Glycols Ltd. Indian Oil Corpn. Ltd. Inox Air Products Ltd. Ispat Metallics India Ltd. [Merged] K A P Steel Ltd. Linde India Ltd. Madhav Industries Ltd. Maharshi Commerce Ltd. Mapro Industries Ltd. Modi Industries Ltd. Mohan Steels Ltd. National Oxygen Ltd. P V P Ltd. [Merged] Paushak Ltd. [Merged] Premier Cryogenics Ltd. Pushya Industrial Gases Ltd. Rukmani Metals & Gaseous Ltd. Saraogi Oxygen Ltd. Shyam Ferro Alloys Ltd. Southern Gas Ltd. Sudha Agro Oil & Chemical Inds. Ltd. Superior Air Products Ltd. [Merged] Swarup Vegetable Products Inds. Ltd. Travancore Oxygen Ltd. Vijaya Oxygen Co. Ltd. Vikas Industrial Gases Ltd. West Coast Industrial Gases Ltd.
Plant capacity: 4152 cum/Day Plant & machinery: Rs.105 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost Of Project : Rs. 286 Lakhs
Return: 23.00%Break even: 58.00%
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Ferro Alloys (Ferro Silicon, Ferro Manganese & Silico Manganese) - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study

Ferro manganese are alloys composed of iron and one or two more metals like Mn, Si, Ti, W etc. The ferro alloys have usually lower melting points than their respective alloying metals in pure stable form and thus, can be readily incorporated to obtain the metals as ferro alloys than in their pure terms starting from their ores. It is a principle alloying agent used in steel production steel/iron casting etc, where it also acts as a strengthener and deoxidiser. It imparts corrosion resistance to the products. Ferro manganese along with Fe-Si, Fe-Cr, is a bulk ferro-alloy, Manganese is also added in steels in the form of silico manganese. It dissolves in iron in all proportions, Iron for Farm implements uses upto 1.75% Mn and also in automobile parts. Ship construction industry uses steels with even higher content; riffle barrels and heat treated forgings necessarily use ferro manganese as an alloying additive.Ferro Alloys Plays major role in Steel Production and industrial development. Ferro-alloys are iron based alloys with varied elements introduced in steel making to cater to the specific needs. These are specified additions to the production of steel for various applications. Generally ferro-alloys are designated by base metal indicated as under such as: Ferro – silicon, Ferro – manganese, Silico – manganese, Ferro – chrome etc. Uses and Applications Ferro alloys are iron bearing alloys with additives which are passed on to steel to meet specific needs. The Ferro alloys are brittle and can be crushed to any size to be added to the molten steel as additives. Generally the additives as in steel are invariably added in the form of Ferro alloys. These are established additives in the steel production to obtain specific needs. Market Survey The demand for ferro alloys has been increasing with that of alloy and special steels. At the beginning of the previous decade, it was about half a million tonnes, increased to over 700,000 tonnes by 1997-98 and reached the level of 1.20 mn tonnes in 2006-07. There are six leading players and over 30 small producers. The industry has tied up with companies in Europe for technology inputs. The major users of alloy steel are: auto industry, railways, forgings, tubes, springs and other engineering industries.The leading players are Alloy Steel (SAIL), Mukand (Advanced Design Materials Corp., USA), Mahindra Ugine, Sunflag Irons & Steel, Vishveshvarya Steel, Kalyani Steel, Panchmahal, Indian Seamless, Shah Alloy Kalyani Carpenter.
Plant capacity: Ferro Silicon:59.0 MT/Day.,Ferro Manganese:167.0 MT/Day.,Silico Manganese:130.5 MT/Day.Plant & machinery: Rs.2493 Lakhs.
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project :Rs4280 Lakhs.
Return: 28.00%Break even: 41.00%
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Low Carbon Ferro Manganese (Medium Grade) - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities

In igneous rocks, which comprise 95% of the earth’s crust the average percentage concentration of manganous oxide is 0.124. This is small in compared with the alumina (15.34), FeO + Fe2O3(6.88) and titania but very much higher than the incidence of the well known metals copper (0.010), zinc ( 0.004), and lead (0.002). In igneous rocks, which comprise 95% of the earth’s crust the average percentage concentration of manganous oxide is 0.124. Manganese is used in metallurgical industries in the form of ferro-manganese. Ferro-manganese contains about 80% Mn and 20% Fe. Generally ferro-manganese is produced in blast furnace or an electric furnace. Low silica ores are preferred as they reduce the slag volume. Secondly, the phosphorous content in the ore should also be low. A high purity ferro-manganese is produced by fused salt electrolysis method. The ore is roasted to produce MnO, followed by leaching with H2SO4 acid to form manganese sulphate. This solution is then neutralised to precipitate iron & aluminium. Other impurities are separated as sulphides. Finally the solution is used for electrolysis to produce ferro-manganese of metallurgical grade. The modern electric furnace route of ferro-manganese production gives 85 - 90% manganese recovery, MnO dust recycling is possible and a high degree of homogenisation, slag control and furnace scrabbing is practised. Further, smelting of high-grade Mn-ore with high-cabon ferro-manganese gives medium carbon ferro-manganese. A silicothermic reduction of manganese ore in an electric furnace yields low-carbon ferromanganese. Uses and Applications Low Carbon Ferro- Manganese is a Ferro alloy with high content of manganese. It gives strength to steel and is used in making of high tension steel; it is widely used in the manufacturing of tool steels, alloys steel & structural steels. Its property causes it to have a high affinity with sulphur in the steel and on combining produces Manganese Sulphide (MnS) which floats up to the metal surface. It is also used as a de-oxidizer and hence finds its usage in the manufacture of 18-8 Austenitic non magnetic stainless steel. In cast iron, manganese is used mainly to counteract the bad effects of sulfur. In steel, manganese acts as a deoxidizer and combines with sulfur, thereby improving the hot-working properties of the steel. Also improves the strength, toughness. Manganese ferroalloys, consisting of various grades of ferromanganese and silicomanganese, are used to provide a key ingredient for steelmaking. Market Survey According to industry experts, the Indian manganese alloy industry has the potential to meet the global challenges despite various constraints. With the necessary supportive measures from the government, the industry can make fast towards the path of sustainable growth and meet the higher requirement of the Indian steel industry. The estimated reserve of chrome ore in India is approx.178 MT. In the longer term, the direction of manganese prices will depend on a combination of economic growth in the industrialised world, and continued expansion of industrialising and emerging economies in Asia and South America. Over the next five years, the rise in steel production will lead to an increase in manganese consumption, with an annual average growth rate of 6% over the next five years, with China and India providing the main impetus for this growth. Global demand for manganese in batteries has been relatively stable at about 300ktpy. This has mainly been accounted for by zinc and alkaline primary batteries, but demand for manganese in rechargeable batteries has risen in recent years. Overall, total demand for manganese is expected to increase by around 6% per year over the next five years. The current scenario of Indian ferro alloys industry has changed due to rapid industrialisation with global steel demand on a high growth trajectory. The estimated production capacity of ferro alloys in India is more than double of the domestic demand, making the industry partially dependent on domestic market and more on export market. The future of industry will depend on international demand and export market against the wider industry impact of energy, ore shortages, production cost volatility and lower profit margin.
Plant capacity: 10 MT/Day.Plant & machinery: 256 Lakhs.
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project:691 Lakhs.
Return: 26.00%Break even: 65.00%
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IRON ORE MINING - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue, Plant Layout

An ‘Ore’ may be defined as the aggregate of minerals from which a desired constituent mineral can be extracted with profit. The most used of all metals “Iron” is believed to be the ninth most abundant element in the Universe. The tough stuff “Iron” makes up the earth’s core and is considered to be the base of civilization. The concentration of iron in the structure of the earth ranges from almost 80% in the inner core to about 5% in the outer crust. Iron is not found in the free elemental state. As technology advanced during the middle Ages, the trench was replaced by a small shaft furnace, and from this the present day blast furnace has developed. The use of waterpower to operate the blast was introduced during the 14th century. The consequent considerable increase in furnace temperature resulted in the production of iron with a much higher carbon content than formerly, namely cast iron. This was not malleable but it was soon discovered how this might be converted into malleable iron by a second heating in an ample supply of air (refining). The iron industry received a great impetus at the end of the 18th century, when the demand for iron began to increase as a result of the invention of the steam engine and the railway. The shortage of wood charcoal led to the introduction of coke, as fuel and as reducing agent. Coke was first used in the blast furnace by Abraham Darby, in 1732. The refining process underwent fundamental improvements during the 19th century, through the introduction of the blast refining method (Bessemer Process, 1855; Thomas-Gilchrist process, 1878) and of regenerative heating (Siemens-Martin process 1865). Later, smelting in the electric furnace has been introduced for the production of certain high-grade steel. Iron is the cheapest and most widely used metal. Its annual production exceeds by far that of all other metals combined. It comprises approximately 93% of the tonnage of all the metals used. Iron makes 5% of the earth’s crust, and is not found in its elementary form, but in the form of chemical compounds with other elements in hundreds of minerals of importance. It is the most wanted ferrous metal having wide application in several industries. Iron plays a vital role in development of any country. Iron and its alloys specially steel are mainly used in civil and engineering industries without which the entire mankind could not have come to the modern age of high quality living. Iron ore is the most important raw material for making pig iron, sponge iron and steel too. To cater to different product needs, many steel plants and ferro-alloys industries have been set up in India. Iron ore in different form is also used in other industries like cement, foundries, paint and glass. USES & APPLICATION Iron ore is used mainly for making pig iron, sponge iron and steel. Iron and steel together form the largest manufactured products in the world and each of them enters into each branch of industry and is a necessary factor in every phase of our modern civilization. Pure iron has relatively few and quite special uses. Ingot iron is galvanized for roofing, siding and tanks. In the form of corrugated pipe, it is used for culverts. Because of its relatively high purity, it is suited to oxyacetylene welding, both as material to be welded and as welding rod. It is used in vitreous enameling. Its good ductibility makes it suitable for deep drawing operations as in the manufacture of appliance part, e.g. washing machine tube; relatively low electrical resistance and high magnetic permeability lead to its use in many types of electrical equipment, generator fields, magnetic parts of relays, magnetic brakes and clutches. Iron ore is also used in ferro- alloy, cement, foundry, vanaspati and glass factories. MARKET SURVEY The Global Iron Ore Mining industry's financial performance has been highly volatile over the past five years. The industry weathered through triple-digit revenue spikes and double-digit declines. After two years of extraordinary growth in 2010 and, to a lesser extent, 2011, revenue contracted in 2012 due to plummeting prices of iron ore. However, according to IBIS World industry analyst Agiimaa Kruchkin, “In 2013, industry performance is expected to recover on the back of rebounding iron ore prices.” Consequently, industry revenue is expected to grow 4.7% to total $264.3 billion over the year. Profit has been similarly unstable, though it has increased overall at an annualized rate of 5.5% to about 43.2% of revenue in 2013. Despite a volatile performance, tremendous growth over the period has ultimately offset any declines, leading to estimated average annual revenue growth of 14.6% in the five years to 2013. Growth for the Global Iron Ore Mining industry has primarily occurred on the back of higher iron ore output and prices. Strong growth in large emerging nations, such as China and India, has driven the demand for iron ore and underpinned higher prices during most of the five-year period; as a result, industry revenue and profit have expanded rapidly. “The industry’s major players, such as Vale and Rio Tinto, have all benefited from these positive conditions, which have allow these companies to acquire several smaller companies over the period and increase market share,” says Kruchkin. Nonetheless, the industry retains its low-to-moderate market share concentration. Total iron ore production worldwide is expected to reach about 2.87 billion metric tons in 2013 (compared with 2.10 billion metric tons in 2008). More than half of this total will be traded internationally. Trade occurs primarily between regions rather than within regions, although there is some intraregional trade in Europe and North America. The major importing regions are North Asia and Europe, while the major exporting regions are South America and Oceania. Following the recession, most iron ore supply contracts shifted from annual pricing (which has been the norm since the 1960s) to more flexible quarterly or even monthly pricing. PRESENT MANUFACTURERS A Narrain Mines Ltd. B G H Exim Ltd. Chowgule & Co. (Salt) Ltd. Concast Steel & Power Ltd. East India Minerals Ltd. Electrosteel Castings Ltd. Essel Mining & Inds. Ltd. Femnor Mineral (India) Ltd. Frontline Corporation Ltd. Gimpex Ltd. Godawari Power & Ispat Ltd. Grace Industries Ltd. H L L Lifecare Ltd. I B C Ltd. Indian Potash Ltd. Jain Granites & Projects India Ltd. K I O C L Ltd. K N R Infrastructure Projects Pvt. Ltd. Kalyani Steels Ltd. Kohinoor Steel Pvt. Ltd. M G M Minerals Ltd. M M T C Ltd. M S P L Ltd. M S P Steel & Power Ltd. Maharashtra State Mining Corpn. Ltd. Mangal Steel Enterprises Ltd. Mark Steels Ltd. Metrochem Industries Ltd. Metroglobal Ltd. Monnet Ispat & Energy Ltd. Mysore Minerals Ltd. Mysore Sales International Ltd. Orissa Manganese & Minerals Ltd. Orissa Minerals Development Co. Ltd. Orissa Mining Corpn. Ltd. P K S Ltd. Rameshwara Jute Mills Ltd. Resurgere Mines & Minerals India Ltd. S P S Metal Cast & Alloys Ltd. S P S Steels Rolling Mills Ltd. S T C L Ltd. Sandur Manganese & Iron Ores Ltd. Sanjana Cryogenic Storages Ltd. Sesa Goa Ltd. Sesa Mining Corpn. Ltd. Sesa Resources Ltd. Shri Ramrupai Balaji Steels Ltd. Soneko India Ltd. Sunil Ispat & Power Ltd. Trimex Industries Ltd. Umil Share & Stock Broking Services Ltd. Usha Ispat Ltd.
Plant capacity: 140 MT/DayPlant & machinery: Rs. 358 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: Rs. 635 Lakhs
Return: 28.18%Break even: 57.96%
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E–WASTE RECYCLING PLANT - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

E-waste is a popular, informal name for electronic products nearing the end of their useful life. Computers, televisions, VCRs, stereos, copiers, and fax machines are common electronic products. While there is no generally accepted definition of e-waste, in most cases, e-waste comprises of relatively expensive and essentially durable products used for data processing, telecommunications or entertainment in private households and businesses. According to the recent survey, electronic discards are one of the fastest growing segments of our nation's waste stream. Electronic wastes, e-waste , e-scrap , or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment ( WEEE ) is a description of surplus, obsolete, broken or discarded electrical or electronic devices. According to the OECD, any appliance using an electric power supply that has reached its end-of-life would come under WEEE. Technically, electronic waste is the component which is dumped or disposed or discarded rather than recycled, including residue from reuse and recycling operations. Because loads of surplus electronics are frequently coming led (good, recyclable, and non-recyclable), several public policy advocates apply the term e-waste broadly to all surplus electronics. WEEE has been identified as one of the fastest growing sources of waste in the EU, and is estimated to be increasing by 16-28 per cent every five years. Within each sector a complex set of heterogeneous secondary wastes is created. However, there exist huge variations in the nature of electronic wastes between sectors, and treatment regimes appropriate for one cannot be readily transferred to another. There is also a lack of definition around the specific details of the treatment requirements of WEEE. It is therefore, the process of recycling of components containing hazardous compounds such as halogenated chlorides and bromides used as flame-retardants in plastics, Copper, PVC sheathing of wires etc., has emerged as a life threatening process, as recycling of such materials produces harmful dioxins. Land filling e-waste, one of the most widely used methods of disposal, is prone to hazards because of leachate which often contains heavy water resources. Older landfill sites and uncontrolled dumps pose a much greater danger of releasing hazardous emissions. Mercury, Cadmium and Lead are among the most toxic leachates. Market survey WEEE has been identified as one of the fastest growing sources of waste in the India, and is estimated to be increasing by 16-28 per cent every five years. Within each sector a complex set of heterogeneous secondary wastes is created. Although treatment requirements are complicated, the sources from any one sector possess many common characteristics. However, there exist huge variations in the nature of electronic wastes between sectors, and treatment regimes appropriate for one cannot be readily transferred to another. The first comprehensive study to estimate the annual generation of e-waste in India and answer the questions above is being undertaken up by the National WEEE Taskforce. So far the preliminary estimates suggest that total WEEE generation in India is approximately 1, 46,000 tons per year. The top states in order of highest contribution to WEEE include Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Delhi, Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab. The city wise ranking of largest WEEE generators is Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Surat and Nagpur. Almost 50% of the PC's sold in India are products from the secondary market and are re-assembled on old components. The remaining market share is covered by multinational manufacturers (30%) and Indian brands (22%).
Plant capacity: 2164500 kgs. /annumPlant & machinery: Rs. 233 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: Rs. 500 Lakhs
Return: 22.00%Break even: 49.00%
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Packaged Drinking Water - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

Water is the necessity of our daily life, it’s so important for us that we need clean, safe and sanitary water every day, and usually there’s a more strict inspection standard in the more advanced country. Potable spring waters containing, sulphur, iron, magnesium and other mineral salts occurring in certain regions are claimed to be beneficial to human metabolism. There are two kinds of drinking water in the market. One is the natural water, which is called mineral water. The other is processed water coming from underground or from the pipe of water plant, which is called R.O. water, space water or pure water. Mineral water comes from natural springs. It contains a lot of various kinds of chemical goods such as potassium, magnesium and calcium, which are healthy to our body. After the water is filtered and sterilized properly, it’s our first choice to use it. However, the shortcoming is that the source of mineral water is limited. On the other side, pure water doesn’t contain any nutrition, but it’s easy to be obtained and very clean after being processed. It tastes good with PH value 5-7?that’s the reason why people like it very much. Pure water is processed through different stages of a filter system such as sand, carbon, and Reversed Osmosis System. The water is passed from 5 micron through 1 to 0.2 micron filter. After that, pure water can be filtered to remove harmful materials with an efficiency of 96%. Uses Mineral water is bottled under very hygienic conditions under strict quality control before being marketed. Its major use is in five star Hotels and Hospitals where good quality pure water is required for potable purposes. It is marketed at places and regions where hygienic drinking water is not freely available. Market Survey Bottled Water Bottled water industry, colloquially called, the mineral water industry, is a symbol of a new lifestyle and health-consciousness emerging in India. While a large segment of the population is struggling to get access to potable water supply, a new generation - especially in the urban areas - is getting accustomed to bottled water paying handsome prices. The total size of the bottled water market in India is estimated at Rs 20 bn. What is amazing is that people are prepared to pay Rs 10 or more for a litre of 'simple' water - especially when the cost of material input is negligible. The cost of packaging can be as high as 15% to 35% of the price of the product. In bottled water market, the cost of entry and the cost of exit is low. One does not require much equipment to make bottled water. The bottled water market is growing at a rapid rate of around 20% a year (down from 50 to 60%). At this growth rate, the market is estimated to overtake the soft drinks market soon. Multi-nationals Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Nestle and others are trying to grab a significant share of the market. There are more than 1800 brands in the unorganized sector. The small players account for nearly 19% of the total market. Nevertheless, per capita consumption of bottled water in India is less than half a litre per year, compared to 111 litres in France and 45 litres in the US. The consumption of smaller packs (500 ml) has increased perceptibly by around 140%. Even school children are carrying the 500-ml packs in their school-bags. The 20 litre jars have found phenomenal acceptance in households and in work places. The growth trends in packaged drinking water and a growing demand is indicative of the fact that water and its variants will be the single largest beverage category, growing and becoming at least 20 times of the current market size within the next 10-12 years. The BIS certification was made mandatory for the segment from April 2001. The bottled water was classified as food and has been brought under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act. The producers have to adhere to rules pertaining to colour, odour, taste, turbidity, total dissolved solids and aerobic microbial count. Few Major Players are as under:- Ajay Enterprises Ltd. Akash Housing Ltd. [Merged] Aradhana Snack Foods Co. Bikaji Marketing Ltd. Bisleri International Pvt. Ltd. Durgapur Projects Ltd. G E I Foods Ltd. Golden Anchor Pvt. Ltd. Jagatjit Industries Ltd. Keventer Agro Ltd. Mohan Meakin Ltd. Mount Everest Mineral Water Ltd. N E P C Agro Foods Ltd. Nuway Organic Naturals India Ltd. Orient Beverages Ltd. Parle Bisleri Pvt. Ltd. [Merged] Parle International Pvt. Ltd. Pepsico India Holdings Pvt. Ltd. Pondicherry Agro Service & Inds. Corp. Ltd. Rose Valley Inds. Ltd. Sparkle Foods Ltd. Sri Sarvaraya Sugars Ltd. Surat Beverages Ltd. Vaarad Ventures Ltd. Vijay Shanthi Builders Ltd.
Plant capacity: 210 Lakhs Nos. /annumPlant & machinery: Rs. 719 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: Rs. 1736 Lakhs
Return: 25.00%Break even: 56.00%
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Neutralization of Phospho-Gypsum - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost & Revenue

Phospho-gypsum is a by-product of the phosphoric acid industry and consists of 65-70 % gypsum, 25-30 % water and 5-10 % impurities, i.e. phosphoric acid and its salts, hydrofluoric acid and its compounds, R2O3 (Al2O3+ Fe2O3), quartz, apatite, alkali, organic matter, and others. The P2O5 and F impurities are found in three different forms in Phospho-gypsum compound: on the surface of gypsum crystals as water soluble compounds (H3PO4, Ca(H2PO4)2•H2O, H2SiF6), substituted in the lattice of gypsum crystals (effectively solid solutions of CaHPO4•2H2O, SrSO4 or Na2SiF6) and as insoluble compounds, i.e. apatite and quartz. These impurities, particularly hydrofluoric acid and its salts, contaminate an environment. Soluble phosphates {H3PO4 and Ca(H2PO4)2•H2O} and soluble fluorides had maximum influence on the fall of compressive strength of plaster. CaHPO4•2H2O had small influence, but with the present of Ca(OH)2 it had great influence on the plaster properties. The most impurities in Phospho-gypsum can be found in the particle size fractions above 160 and below 25 µm. There are more than few plants (those of Onoda in Japan, Giulinichemic GmbH , Knauf in Germany, etc.) where the impurities are eliminated by washing Phospho-gypsum with water or separating off coarse and very fine particles. Up to 4 m3 of water is necessary for 1 ton of Phospho-gypsum. The Phospho-gypsum mixtures are also eliminated by using a combined method when Phospho-gypsum is washed with a smaller amount of water, and the rest of the acid mixtures are neutralized by adding the following additives: Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, K2CO3, KOH, Portland cement, NH4OH, etc. The acid impurities are not fully eliminated from the Phospho-gypsum crystals. The insoluble phosphates {Ca3(PO4)2, Ca5(PO4)3OH} and fluorides (CaF2 andCaSiF6) did not influence the plaster properties. The objective of the work is to investigate the neutralization process of the acid impurities of dehydrate Phospho-gypsum into lime suspension. Market Survey Phosphoric acid production scenarios in India, there are 11 no. of phosphoric acid manufacturing units located in 7 States namely Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The total production of phosphoric acid is about 1.2 Million Tons during the year 2009-2010. The 3 Generation of Phospho-gypsum Phospho-gypsum is generated from filtration process in phosphoric acid plants where insoluble gypsum (and other material) are separated from the product i.e. phosphoric acid as efficiently as possible. Depending on the source of rock phosphate about 4.5 -5 Tons (dry basis) of Phospho-gypsum (by-product Phospho-gypsum) is generated per ton of phosphoric acid (as P2O5) recovered. The quality & quantity of Phospho-gypsum generation depends upon the quality of the phosphate rock, process route used to produce phosphoric acid, calcium sulphate generated either in di-hydrate (CaSO4.2H2O) or the hemi-hydrate (CaSO4.1/2 H2O) form. Phosphogypsum generation in the Country is about 11 Million Tons per annum (based on the assumption that 5 Tons of Phospho-gypsum generated per ton of phosphoric acid production). International practices of Phospho-gypsum management & handling Phosphogypsum contains three types of impurities that are considered to be potentially harmful such as residual acidity, fluorine compounds, trace elements including radioactivity.
Plant capacity: 600000 MT/annumPlant & machinery: Rs 1008 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: Rs. 3114 Lakhs
Return: 36.00%Break even: 43.00%
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