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Activated carbon, Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Activated Carbon, Activated Carbon Powder, Powdered Activated carbon (PAC), activated charcoal, activated coal, Activated Fuller Earth, Pelleted activated carbon (EAC), Impregnated carbon, Polymers coated

Activated carbon is a black solid substance resembling granular or powdered charcoal. It is extremely porous with a large surface area, Activated carbon is produced from organic based materials such as coconut shells, palm-kernel shells wood chips, sawdust, corn cobs, seeds etc. Activated carbon prepared from Bamboo has been found to be the best in terms of surface area and adsorption capacity.Manufacture of activated charcoal is one glaring example of extracting useful product from what was considered wasteful hitherto. Activated charcoal has found use in various industries starting from water filtration to detoxification of body.

Activated carbon can be used for removal of organic chemicals, chlorine, lead, unpleasant tastes and odors in effluent or coloured substances from gas or liquid streams by the mechanism of adsorption. Adsorption can be classically defined as absorption on the surface of the material due to capillary condensation inside the multitude of pores and active sites available. Modern water purifiers come with activated carbon filter. Activated carbon water is very effective in removing chlorine from water which is cancerous if consumed.

High-grade activated carbon can be obtained from woody material like bamboo having inherent mechanical strength, high carbon and low ash content. Since India is the second largest producers of bamboo, there exists an excellent scope for producing bamboo based high-grade activated carbon if appropriate technology is developed and exploited at commercial level.India, have also made good progress in the field of manufacture of activated charcoal prepared from abundant supply of coconut shells, collected after using the kernel and coconut water.

India has been one of major exporters of activated carbon of late and is expected to do better in the coming years.

 

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FURFURAL FROM CORNCOBS, RICE HUSK & SUGARCANE BAGASSE - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Plant Layout

Furfural is produced from agricultural waste biomass that contain pentosans, which are aldose to sugars, composed of small rings formed from short five-member chains, that constitute a class of complex carbohydrates, present in cellulose of many woody plants such as corn cobs, sugar cane bagasse, rice and oat hulls etc. Furfural is a clear, colorless motile liquid with a characteristic almond-benzaldehyde odor. Any material containing pentosans can be used for the production of furfural. Technically furfural is produced by acid hydrolysis of the pentosan contained in woody biomass. Furfural is the only organic compound derived from biomass that can replace the crude oil based organics used in industry. Furfural is used as a solvent in petrochemical refining to extract dienes from other hydrocarbons. Furfural, as well as its derivative furfuryl alcohol, can be used together with phenol, acetone, or urea to make solid resins. Furfural can be used for the production of lubricants; specialist adhesives and plastics; and nylons. It is the starting material for cycling shorts and many more. The demand for furfural and furfuryl alcohol in the international market will maintain stable growth for the next few years. Due to problems in environmental impact and cost, the output of furfural in advanced countries such as the United States and European countries will decline further owing to the relatively low production cost of furfuryl alcohol in India. Expanded production of downstream products can remarkably increase the added value of India’s furfural and furfuryl alcohol industrial chain. The production of the (tetrahydrofuran) and PTMEG (polytetramethylene ether glycol) using furfural as raw material is an important way to increase the added value and is worth great attention from furfural producers. Production of furfural and furfuryl alcohol is projected to increase at an average annual rate of 5% provided no shortage of raw material (corncobs) is experienced. China is the only major region where increased furfural production is expected in the next five years. There is a good scope to venture into this field for new entrepreneurs.
Plant capacity: 600 MT/AnnumPlant & machinery: 69 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 278 Lakhs
Return: 41.00%Break even: 52.00%
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ACTIVATED CARBON FROM BAMBOO - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

Activated carbon is a non graphite form of carbon and is micro crystalline in nature. It is extensively used in various industries as a very good adsorbent for odour or colour. There are two varieties of activated carbon viz gas phase or the liquid phase adsorbents. The liquid phase activated carbon is usually powder or granular form where as the gas phase adsorbent is hard granules like dust free pellets. Besides the liquid phase and gas phase classification of activated carbon, into grades based on the chemical properties it possesses such as its methylene blue (MB) value, surface area, ash content, iron content, pH factor and adsorption quality of carbon. The term activated carbon, active carbon, or active charcoal is usually applied to amorphous carbons possessing higher adsorption capacity their wood or animal charcoal. Many carbon of industrial value are prepared from coal and from organic vegetable and animal matter. The resulting amorphous products include Charcoal coke, and petroleum coke. Carbon as such is probably, the most widely distributed element in nature. It occurs in two allotropic crystalline forms, viz, graphite (hexagonal system) and diamond (isomeric system), The former is soft and weak while diamond is hard and transparent. A large variety of raw materials are available for the manufacture of these products Coal, petroleum coke, and wood charcoal are activated by gas activation. Paddy and groundnut husk, saw dust, bagasse molasses, straw, tree bark, bagasse, cocoa bean, shells, bamboo, distillery slop, waste mahua flowers and various industrial wastes have been utilized for the production of active carbons by chemical activation. Small quantities of activated carbons have been manufactured indigenously on commercial scale from paddy husk, bagasse and filter press mud particularly for use in the refining of gur. Many carbonaceous materials such as petroleum, coke, saw dust, lignite, coal, peat, wood charcoal, nutshells, and fruit pits may be used for the manufacture of activated carbon, but the properties of the finished material are governed not only by the raw material but by the method of activation used. Activated carbons form two main classes, those used for adsorption of gases and vapors, for which a granular material is generally employed and those used in purification of liquid for which a powdered material is desired. Due to the expansion of pharmaceutical and vegetable oil industry the demand of activated carbon is expected to rise sharply in the coming years. Apart from demand in Indian market, there is also huge demand of activated carbon in foreign market for the high quality activated carbon. It is very clear that there exists very good scope for this product and it can be exploited easily. Few Indian Major Players are as under: Indo German Carbons Ltd. Ion Exchange (India) Ltd. Triton Laboratories Ltd. Cost Estimation: Capacity : 1500 Ton/Annum Composition of Batch Mix, it’s a Batch process, one feed 5 Tons finished product will required
Plant capacity: 1500 Ton/AnnumPlant & machinery: 82 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 313 Lakhs
Return: 44.00%Break even: 46.00%
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ACTIVATED CARBON FROM COCONUT SHELL IN CONTINUOUS ROTARY KILN - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study

Coconut shell is used for manufacturing a variety of products of commercial importance including activated carbon. Shell is carbonized by using methods like pit method, drum method, destructive distillation etc. Shell based activated carbon is extensively use in the process of refining and bleaching of vegetable oils and chemical solutions, water purification, recovery of solvents, recovery of gold etc. It is used in gas masks and a wide range of filters for war gases and nuclear fall outs. Coconut shell based activated carbon units adopt steam activation process to produce good quality activated carbon. Activated carbon is produced from organic based materials such as coconut shells, palm kernel shells, wood chips, sawdust, corn cobs, seeds etc. The major importers of activated carbon for the period were the gold mining companies, the brewery and the soft drink industries. Activated carbon is used in the gold mining industries to recover gold from cyanide solution using the carbon in pulp or carbon in leach processes. In the brewery and soft drink industries, activated carbon is used mainly to purify the water used in production. In India activated carbon industry is of recent origin. There were only one or two manufacturing units in early fifties which have now increased to 50 or even more. Activated carbon industry is wide spreaded in different parts in the country. The future of beverage industry is very bright. History of activated carbon clearly indicates that it is one of the adsorbent materials both in liquid and gas phases and its applications have steeply increased with growth of modern process industries. A new entrepreneur venturing into this project will find it very lucrative. Few Indian Major Players are as under: Indo German Carbons Ltd. Ion Exchange (India) Ltd. Triton Laboratories Ltd.
Plant capacity: 3000 MT/AnnumPlant & machinery: 395 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 767 Lakhs
Return: 43.00%Break even: 52.00%
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ACTIVATED CARBON FROM COCONUT SHELL

Activated carbon is very important chemical has wide application and employed by numerous industries which require absorption of certain gases and vapors in purification, in catalytic chemical reactions, de colorization of vegetable oil and sugar solutions. Activated carbon manufactured from coconut shell is considered superior to those obtained from other sources mainly because of small macro pores structure which renders it more effective for the Coconut shell is used for manufacturing a variety of products of commercial importance including activated carbon. Activated carbon is a non graphite form of carbon which could be produced from any carbonaceous material such as coal, lignite, wood, paddy husk, coir pith, coconut shell, etc. adsorption of gas/vapor and for the removal of color and odor of compounds. The activated carbon is extensively used in the refining and bleaching of vegetable oils and chemical solutions, water purification, recovery of solvents and other vapors, recovery of gold, in gas masks for protection against toxic gases, in filters for providing adequate protection against war gases/nuclear fall outs, etc. Product characteristics H value - 6.5-7.5 Adsorption capacity at % by mass - 45 Moisture (max) - 5% Ash - 5% Hardness - 90 Applications • Granulated activated carbons are used for purification of gases or liquids and are used in a vertical carbon packed column • Activated carbons have been used as carriers for catalyst in the manufacture of chlorinated hydrocarbons. • Activated carbon finds application in the preparation of pills and digestive tablets. Its adsorptive properties are utilized in the treatment of laments of the stomach due to hyper acidity. • In the laboratory, it is used for the production of high vacuum, purification of gases, determination of vapor content in a carrier gas, etc. Global demand National Scenario In India activated carbon industry is of recent origin. There were only one or two manufacturing units in early fifties which have now increased to 50 or even more. But now activated carbon industry is widely spreaded in different parts of the country. Most of the units are in small scale sector. However, based upon the enquiries there are more than 50 units manufacturing activated carbon for selling. They are located in different parts of the country. Most of these units have capacity of more than 100 tonnes. Quite a few units have installed capacity of more than 1,000 tonnes also. Only 10 to 12 units cater to the national market, all other units cater by and large to local or regional market. It is learnt that the total installed capacity of present available was about 75,000 tonnes and production was around 65,000 to 70,000 tonnes which includes purified and regenerated carbon too. International scenarios Estimated demand of activated carbon in developing countries like Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and gulf countries, where industrial development is emerging up is around 134580 MT in 2014 to 2015. The future of beverage industry is very bright. As the demand for activated carbon from this industry is likely to increase rapidly the estimated to be 15 percent annum and accordingly estimated demand are around 12790 in 2010 to 2011. Activated carbon is also being used in nuclear plants and laboratories for containment of many radioisotopes. Since the applications and demand of activated carbon is immense therefore the potential of the product is excellent. It is one of the imperative fields to endeavor.
Plant capacity: 3 tonnes/dayPlant & machinery: 45 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 200 Lakhs
Return: 43.00%Break even: 45.00%
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ACTIVATED CARBON FROM SAW DUST & COCONUT SHELL - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities

Profile Activated carbon is a non graphitic form of carbon, which could be produced by activation of any carbonaceous material such as coconut shells, bamboo, wood chips, sawdust, coal, lignite, paddy husk etc. The process of activation is carried out in two stages. The raw material is first carbonized and then activated either by chemicals or by steam to derive the highly porous structure. Activated carbon has been used to purify different products since Roman times. Activated carbon has a very high internal surface area and is thus an ideal material for adsorption. Properties Adsorption Parameters of Activated Carbon of three grades namely powder, granular and pelletlized finds hundreds of different applications. By chemical activation, predominantly powder activated carbons are made and these qualities are mostly used for waste water treatment. Granular products and pellets used for gas purification are predominantly made by gas steam activation. To cite some examples from the numerous applications: decolourisation of sugar and sweeteners, drinking water treatment, gold recovery, production of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, catalytic process, off gas treatment of waste incinerators, automotive vapor filters, color/odor correction in wines and fruit juices. For Purification of liquids, the powdered form of activated carbon is added to the liquid to be purified and the mixture is agitated and finally filtered. Application of Activated Carbon Activated carbon is used in a wide gamut of industries starting the food products to nuclear reactor system, minor metal chemical and so on. The consumption of most of the industries is very small. Accordingly, various industries consuming activated carbon are grouped in following way. 1. Edible Oil Industry 2. Pharmaceutical Industry 3. Beverage Industry 4. Water treatment plants/water purification units. Activated carbon is used as catalyst support, purification of groundnut oil, purification of water for boiler purposes, in the manufacture of rayon yarn and in the purification of rice bran oil. Beside these industries mentioned above activated carbon finds its application in the purification of natural gas and as decolorizing agent in many chemical and allied industries. Market Scenario Activated carbon is an amorphous form of elemental carbon prepared by destructive distillation of any one of a variety of carbonaceous raw materials, including wood, coal or coconut shells. Worldwide demand for activated carbon is expected to increase more than ten percent per annum through 2016 to 1.9 million metric tons. While implementation of the newest Five Year Plan will bolster activated carbon use in water treatment, gains will also come from increasing consumption by industry, as demand for activated carbon in every major market in the nation is forecast to rise faster than the world average. Expanding production of edible oils, packaged beverages, and sweetener will stimulate growth of activated carbon in much of the rest of the world.
Plant capacity: 20 MT/day Plant & machinery: 181 Lakh
Working capital: -T.C.I: 1070 Lakh
Return: 43.00%Break even: 37.00%
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ACTIVATED CARBON FROM SAW DUST & COCONUT SHELL - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities

Activated Carbon is a unique material because of the way it is filled with holes (voids, spaces, sites, pores,) whatever the size of molecules. It is that, although they are spaces of zero electron density, these pores possess intense vander wall forces (from the near proximity of carbon atoms). Activated carbon is a non graphitic form of carbon, which could be produced by activation of any carbonaceous material such as coconut shells, bamboo, wood chips, sawdust, coal, lignite, paddy husk etc. The process of activation is carried out in two stages. The raw material is first carbonized and then activated either by chemicals or by steam to derive the highly porous structure. Shell based activated carbon is extensively used in the process of refining and bleaching of vegetable oils and chemical solutions, water purification, recovery of solvents, recovery of gold, in gas masks for protection against toxic gases, in filters for providing adequate protection against war gases/nuclear fall outs, etc. Uses and Application A wide variety of activated carbon products are available exhibiting markedly different characteristics depending upon the raw material and activation of technique used in their production. In selecting the activated carbon it is important to have a clear understanding of both the adsorptive and physical characteristics of the material in order to optimize the performance capabilities. Activated Carbon of three grades namely powder, granular and pelletlized finds hundreds of different applications. By chemical activation, predominantly powder activated carbons are made and these qualities are mostly used for wastewater treatment. Granular products and pellets used for gas purification are predominantly made by gas steam activation. To cite some examples from the numerous applications: decolorization of sugar and sweeteners, drinking water treatment, gold recovery, production of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, catalytic process, off gas treatment of waste incinerators, automotive vapor filters, color/odor correction in wines and fruit juices. Market Survey The global activated carbon market was worth $1.8 billion in 2011 and is estimated to reach $3 billion by 2016, growing at a CAGR of 11.1% from 2011 to 2016. The powdered and granular activated carbon segments are the key revenue generators for the activated carbon market. The demand for activated carbon (AC) is expected to grow due to the new demand in mercury control technology for industrial air purification applications.
Plant capacity: 6000 MT/ Annum Plant & machinery: 181 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 1070 Lakhs
Return: 43.00%Break even: 37.00%
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Activated Carbon from Coconut Shell - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities

Activated carbon in any form of carbon shows high absorptivity for gases, vapours and colloidal solids in either the gas ion or liquid phase. It is available in many forms such as pellets, granules and in powder form. Activated carbon is very important chemical has wide application and employed by numerous industries which require absorption of certain gases and vapours in purification, in catalytic chemical reactions, decolorisation of vegetable oil and sugar solutions. Activated carbons have a large surface area, liquid phase activated carbons are light in weight, fluffy powder while gas phase activated carbons are hard and are in the form of pellets. Industrial activated carbons in the forms of pellets, granules or fine powders, and with many industrial applications, are now on the market under different trade names. Absorption on activated carbon is selective, favouring monopolar overpolar substances, and in a homogenous serious, generally improving with increasing boiling point. Absorption is also improved with increased pressure and reduced temperature. Following industries are the major consumers of Activated carbon:Edible Oil Industry, Pharmaceutical Industry, Beverage Industry, Water treatment plant/water purification plant, Sugar Industries and Solvent recovery unit. Uses and Applications For Purification of liquids, the powdered form of activated carbon is added to the liquid to be purified and the mixture is agitated and finally filtered. Granulated activated carbons are used for purification of gases or liquids and are used in a vertical carbon packed column. It is also used in Removing or improving the colour and flavour of edible materials, such as agar, beer, cider, wines whisky, vinegar, fruit juices, gelatine, pectin, and cocoa butter, removing colour, odour grease and colloids from dry cleaning fluids such as naphtha, gasoline, carbon tetrachloride, etc., removing oil and grease from boiler feed water and electroplating solutions, preparation of biological products like vitamins hormones, and enzymes etc. Activated carbons have been used as carriers for catalyst in the manufacture of chlorinated hydrocarbons. They are used as catalytic dehydrogenation agents in the production of ketones from higher alcohols. Activated carbons finds application in the preparation of pills and digestive tablets. Its adsorptive properties are utilized in the treatment of alments of the stomach due to hyper acidity. It removes toxic amines, organic acids of decomposed foods, and probably also bacteria from the intestinal tract. Large doses, either alone or mixed with kaoline, are administered for diarrhoea.
Plant capacity: 10 MT/ dayPlant & machinery: Rs.324 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost Of Project: Rs.667 Lakhs
Return: 42.00%Break even: 76.00%
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Activated Carbon From Coconut Shell - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities

Activated carbon shows high absorptivity for gases, vapors and colloidal solids in either the gas ion or liquid phase. It is available in many forms such as pellets, granules and in powder form. Activated carbon is very important chemical, has wide application and employed by numerous industries which require absorption of certain gases and vapors in purification, in catalytic chemical reactions, decolorisation of vegetable oil and sugar solutions. Activated carbons have a large surface area, liquid phase activated carbons are light in weight, fluffy powder while gas phase activated carbons are hard and are in the form of pellets. Many carbons of industrial value are prepared from coal and from organic vegetable and animal matter. A large variety of raw materials are available for the manufacture of different forms of activated carbon such as, Coal, petroleum coke, and wood charcoal are activated by gas activation; Industrial waste e.g. raw dust, bagasse, molasses, straw, tanbark waste, coconut pericarp and shell, corn cobs, paddy and ground nut husk, cocoa been shell, distillery slop, waste Mahua flowers, waste wood pulp liquor, and filter press mud from sugar factories etc. Uses & Application • For Purification of liquids: the powdered form of activated carbon is added to the liquid to be purified and the mixture is agitated and finally filtered. • Granulated activated carbons are used for purification of gases or liquids and are used in a vertical carbon packed column. • Removing or improving the color and flavor of edible materials, such as agar, beer, cider, wines whisky, vinegar, fruit juices, gelatin, pectin, and cocoa butter. • Removing color, odor grease and colloids from dry cleaning fluids such as naphtha, gasoline, carbon tetrachloride, etc. • Dephenolizing effluent gas works liquor. • Removing oil and grease from boiler feed water and electroplating solutions. • Recovering iodine from sea water, and bromine from brines, • Reclaiming aniline, benzene, phenol, and camphor from trade wastes. • Preparation of biological products like vitamins hormones, and enzymes. • Activated carbons have been used as carriers for catalyst in the manufacture of chlorinated hydrocarbons. They are used as catalytic dehydrogenation agents in the production of ketones from higher alcohols. • Gas adsorbent carbon is employed for the recovery of gasoline from natural gas. • It is also used for the removal of hydrogen sulphide from town gas, for purification of carbon dioxide from distillery gases, and for the maintenance of vacuum in containers for liquid air and, generally in vacuum flasks. • Activated carbon is used in the preparation of pills and digestive tablets, utilized in the treatment of ailments of the stomach due to hyper acidity, its large doses, either alone or mixed with Karoline, are administered for diarrhea. • It is used as a dressing for suppurating wounds, used as an antidote to various forms of poisoning, especially those due to mercury salts strychnine, phenol, morphine, atropine, oxalic acid, mushroom, and poisons for which other antidotes are not available. Market Survey The activated carbon industry consists of more than 50 units spread countrywide most of which are in small-scale industrial sector (SSI Sector). Of the total number of units in operation, only 10 to 12 units cater to the national market while the other serve the local or regional markets. In general activated carbon is manufactured in the northern region from wood charcoal (mostly made from pinewood) whereas in the southern region, it is made from charcoal of the hard shell of coconut. The domestic market for activated carbon is fast expanding with rapid growth of several end user industries. The demand from the vegetable oil industry – the largest consumer of activated carbon is 24,000 tones. The capacity utilization ratio is reported to around 85%. In such circumstances effected by higher demand as compared to shorter supply, end user industries have to depend partially on the imports and partially on the lower consumption of activated carbon at their units. The demand for carbon black is going up in India, due to the steady rise in automobile sales and its direct correlation with the tyre industry. Total installed carbon black capacity in India now stands at 700,000MT. With a brisk pick-up in the tyre sector, demand for carbon black is expected to increase 8% to 10% per annum in the domestic market. Global Demand:- The global activated carbon industry is estimated to be around 1.1 million metric ton. Demand for virgin activated carbon is expected to rise by around 10% annually through 2014, worldwide. The global activated carbon market was worth $1.8 billion in 2011 and is estimated to reach $3 billion by 2016, growing at a CAGR of 11.1% from 2011 to 2016. The demand for activated carbon (AC) is expected to grow due to the new demand in mercury control technology for industrial air purification applications. Demand for activated carbon in mercury control applications alone is forecast to grow more than fivefold to 520 million pounds. Since powdered activated carbon (PAC) is overwhelmingly the product type used in mercury control technology, the PAC segment will expand to account for two-thirds of US product demand in 2014 in volume terms. Granular activated carbon (GAC) types will see strong gains through 2014 as well, due primarily to expanded use of activated carbon filter systems in municipal drinking water treatment. World demand for virgin activated carbon is forecast to expand an impressive 9.0 percent per annum through 2014 to 1.7 million metric tons. The US represents the largest national market for activated carbon in the world. ? Current world demand for carbon black is estimated to be 10.4 million tones a year against an installed capacity of 14.26 million tones indicating supply is outstripping demand. According to industry sources, global carbon black capacity is expected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.3% between 2011 and 2015 even as demand is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.5%. Demand for carbon black in overseas markets, particularly the US and Japan, has started picking up in the recent past, with China, India, and Central and Eastern Europe showing much higher demand. Few Major Players are listed below: Indo German Carbons Ltd. Ion Exchange (India) Ltd. Triton Laboratories Ltd.
Plant capacity: 1500 MT/annumPlant & machinery: 157 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: 380 Lakhs
Return: 47.00%Break even: 40.00%
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Activated Carbon (From Coconut Shell) - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities

Activated carbon shows high absorptivity for gases, vapors and colloidal solids in either the gas ion or liquid phase. It is available in many forms such as pellets, granules and in powder form. Activated carbon is very important chemical, has wide application and employed by numerous industries which require absorption of certain gases and vapors in purification, in catalytic chemical reactions, decolorisation of vegetable oil and sugar solutions. Activated carbons have a large surface area, liquid phase activated carbons are light in weight, fluffy powder while gas phase activated carbons are hard and are in the form of pellets. Many carbons of industrial value are prepared from coal and from organic vegetable and animal matter. A large variety of raw materials are available for the manufacture of different forms of activated carbon such as, Coal, petroleum coke, and wood charcoal are activated by gas activation; Industrial waste e.g. raw dust, bagasse, molasses, straw, tanbark waste, coconut pericarp and shell, corn cobs, paddy and ground nut husk, cocoa been shell, distillery slop, waste Mahua flowers, waste wood pulp liquor, and filter press mud from sugar factories etc. Uses & Application • For Purification of liquids: the powdered form of activated carbon is added to the liquid to be purified and the mixture is agitated and finally filtered. • Granulated activated carbons are used for purification of gases or liquids and are used in a vertical carbon packed column. • Removing or improving the color and flavor of edible materials, such as agar, beer, cider, wines whisky, vinegar, fruit juices, gelatin, pectin, and cocoa butter. • Removing color, odor grease and colloids from dry cleaning fluids such as naphtha, gasoline, carbon tetrachloride, etc. • Dephenolizing effluent gas works liquor. • Removing oil and grease from boiler feed water and electroplating solutions. • Recovering iodine from sea water, and bromine from brines, • Reclaiming aniline, benzene, phenol, and camphor from trade wastes. • Preparation of biological products like vitamins hormones, and enzymes. • Activated carbons have been used as carriers for catalyst in the manufacture of chlorinated hydrocarbons. They are used as catalytic dehydrogenation agents in the production of ketones from higher alcohols. • Gas adsorbent carbon is employed for the recovery of gasoline from natural gas. • It is also used for the removal of hydrogen sulphide from town gas, for purification of carbon dioxide from distillery gases, and for the maintenance of vacuum in containers for liquid air and, generally in vacuum flasks. • Activated carbon is used in the preparation of pills and digestive tablets, utilized in the treatment of ailments of the stomach due to hyper acidity, its large doses, either alone or mixed with Karoline, are administered for diarrhea. • It is used as a dressing for suppurating wounds, used as an antidote to various forms of poisoning, especially those due to mercury salts strychnine, phenol, morphine, atropine, oxalic acid, mushroom, and poisons for which other antidotes are not available. Market Survey The activated carbon industry consists of more than 50 units spread countrywide most of which are in small-scale industrial sector (SSI Sector). Of the total number of units in operation, only 10 to 12 units cater to the national market while the other serve the local or regional markets. In general activated carbon is manufactured in the northern region from wood charcoal (mostly made from pinewood) whereas in the southern region, it is made from charcoal of the hard shell of coconut. The domestic market for activated carbon is fast expanding with rapid growth of several end user industries. The demand from the vegetable oil industry – the largest consumer of activated carbon is 24,000 tones. The capacity utilization ratio is reported to around 85%. In such circumstances effected by higher demand as compared to shorter supply, end user industries have to depend partially on the imports and partially on the lower consumption of activated carbon at their units. The demand for carbon black is going up in India, due to the steady rise in automobile sales and its direct correlation with the tyre industry. Total installed carbon black capacity in India now stands at 700,000MT. With a brisk pick-up in the tyre sector, demand for carbon black is expected to increase 8% to 10% per annum in the domestic market. Global Demand:- The global activated carbon industry is estimated to be around 1.1 million metric ton. Demand for virgin activated carbon is expected to rise by around 10% annually through 2014, worldwide. The global activated carbon market was worth $1.8 billion in 2011 and is estimated to reach $3 billion by 2016, growing at a CAGR of 11.1% from 2011 to 2016. The demand for activated carbon (AC) is expected to grow due to the new demand in mercury control technology for industrial air purification applications. Demand for activated carbon in mercury control applications alone is forecast to grow more than fivefold to 520 million pounds. Since powdered activated carbon (PAC) is overwhelmingly the product type used in mercury control technology, the PAC segment will expand to account for two-thirds of US product demand in 2014 in volume terms. Granular activated carbon (GAC) types will see strong gains through 2014 as well, due primarily to expanded use of activated carbon filter systems in municipal drinking water treatment. World demand for virgin activated carbon is forecast to expand an impressive 9.0 percent per annum through 2014 to 1.7 million metric tons. The US represents the largest national market for activated carbon in the world. ? Current world demand for carbon black is estimated to be 10.4 million tones a year against an installed capacity of 14.26 million tones indicating supply is outstripping demand. According to industry sources, global carbon black capacity is expected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.3% between 2011 and 2015 even as demand is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.5%. Demand for carbon black in overseas markets, particularly the US and Japan, has started picking up in the recent past, with China, India, and Central and Eastern Europe showing much higher demand. Few Major Players are listed below: Indo German Carbons Ltd. Ion Exchange (India) Ltd. Triton Laboratories Ltd.
Plant capacity: 1500 MT/annumPlant & machinery: 157 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: 380 Lakhs
Return: 47.00%Break even: 40.00%
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Activated Carbon From Coconut Shell, Rice Husk & Saw Dust

The Activated Carbon industry consists of more than 60 units spread countrywide, most of which are in the unorganized small-scale industrial sector. Due to its increasing demand worldwide, more and more units have expanded operations to cater mainly to the international market. The global activated carbon industry is estimated to be around 1.1 million metric ton. Demand for virgin activated carbon is expected to rise by around 10% annually through 2014, worldwide. The U.S is the largest market, which will also pace global growth based on anticipated new federal regulations mandating mercury removal at coal-fired power plants. The global activated carbon market was worth $1.8 billion in 2011 and is estimated to reach $3 billion by 2016, growing at a CAGR of 11.1% from 2011 to 2016. The powdered and granular activated carbon segments are the key revenue generators for the activated carbon market. There is good domestic and export potential for leather products. New entrepreneurs can well venture into this sector Few Major Players are named as under: Indo German Carbons Ltd. Ion Exchange (India) Ltd. Triton Laboratories Ltd.
Plant capacity: 300 MT/AnnumPlant & machinery: Rs.93 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: 293 Lakhs
Return: 24.00%Break even: 55.00%
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  • One Lac / Lakh / Lakhs is equivalent to one hundred thousand (100,000)
  • One Crore is equivalent to ten million (10,000,000)
  • T.C.I is Total Capital Investment
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  • Caution: The project's cost, capacity and return are subject to change without any notice. Future projects may have different values of project cost, capacity or return.

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