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Solar Photovoltaics-a Viable Future Alternative Of Renewable Energy - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study

Solar energy is an enormous resource that is readily available in all countries throughout the world, and all the space above the earth. It can be used everywhere, and can, in principal, satisfy most of India’s energy demand from a renewable, safe and clean resources. Most of all, it reduces the impact of energy production and consumption. With a population of 683 million, living in an area of about 3.28 million sq km, India has one of the lowest energy consumption per capita in the world; the equivalent of about 315 kg of coal per annum. Approximately 40% of this energy comes from non-commercial sources such as firewood, animal dung, agricultural waste etc. The electrical energy consumption per capita is only about 172KWh compared with a world average of 1700 KWh. The recent energy crisis has predictably resulted in a search for economically viable renewable energy sources suitable for large-scale utilization. India should accelerate the use of all forms of renewable energy (photovoltaic, thermal solar, solar lamps, solar pumps, wind power, biomass, biogas, and hydro), and more proactively promote energy efficiency. India must accelerate its investment in renewable energy resources, specifically solar and wind energy. The technological maturity achieved has naturally guided the Indian planners seriously to consider solar photovoltaic energy sources, among others, as viable future alternatives. The current levels of dependence on fossil fuels, the need of reducing the carbon emissions associated with energy use and the prospects of developing a new and extremely innovative technology sector, make photovoltaics increasingly attractive. Photovoltaics are devices which directly convert sunlight into electricity. The solar cell is the elementary building block of the photovoltaic technology. Solar cells are made of semiconductor materials, such as silicon. One of the properties of semiconductors that makes them most useful is that their conductivity may easily be modified by introducing impurities into their crystal lattice. Solar photovoltaic energy sources produce D.C. electricity directly from solar energy. A number of solar cells electrically connected to each other and mounted in a single support structure or frame is called a ‘photovoltaic module’. Modules are designed to supply electricity at a certain voltage. The current produced is directly dependent on the intensity of light reaching the module. Several modules can be wired together to form an array. Photovoltaic modules and arrays produce direct-current electricity. They can be connected in both series and parallel electrical arrangements to produce any required voltage and current combination. There are two main types of photovoltaic system. Grid connected systems (on-grid systems) are connected to the grid and inject the electricity into the grid. For this reason, the direct current produced by the solar modules is converted into a grid-compatible alternating current. However, solar power plants can also be operated without the grid and are then called autonomous systems (off-grid systems). More than 90 % of photovoltaic systems worldwide are currently implemented as grid-connected systems. The power conditioning unit also monitors the functioning of the system and the grid and switches off the system in case of faults. Solar photovoltaic energy sources can be deployed either as centralized or as distributed systems. At present, the centralized schemes have little importance in the context of India. Of the three schemes of distributed sources, the community-based and the user-owned stand-alone systems are of importance to India. Although it has been recognized in India that the major impact of solar photovoltaic sources will be in lift irrigation, there are a large number of other potential areas of application where photovoltaic can make an effective contribution. These include diverse areas such as individual home lighting, rural lighting, offshore oil platforms, rural communication system, weather monitoring systems and many more. The National Solar Mission, with an ambitious target of achieving 20,000 MW capacity by 2030 under the national action plan on climate change, will also be in operation this year with the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy's plan budget being increased by 61% from Rs 617 crore to Rs 998 crore. The target: 200 MW grid power and 32 MW equivalent off-grid solar power to be installed in the next financial year. Custom duty has also been pegged at a low 5% on equipment for solar photovoltaic and solar thermal power. These equipments will also be exempted from central excise duties. Excise will also be reduced from 8% to 4% on LED lights. Photovoltaic technology is safe, clean, robust and proven to be efficient and highly scalable. Photovoltaics are easy to introduce and implemented all over the world, in both developed and developing countries. Thus renewable technologies are a clear opportunity for India to establish and reinforce a competitive edge in a highly innovative industrial sector. It is currently in a position to lead the worldwide effort to reduce harmful emissions from energy systems and strengthen its industrial basis, thus also creating new skilled jobs. India should begin creating a mainstream solar energy market with the goal of making solar power cost-competitive with fossil fuel-generated electricity in the near future. India will strongly prioritize the use of solar thermal energy as a solution to the climate and energy crisis. India’s solar energy holds great promise.
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