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Saturday, April 11, 2015

Acrylonitrile is a chemical compound with the formula C 3H 3N. This colorless liquid often appears yellow due to impurities. It is an important monomer for the manufacture of useful plastics such as polyacrylonitrile. In terms of its molecular structure, it consists of avinyl group linked to a nitrile. The acrylonitrile is a colorless to pale yellow liquid and volatile liquid that is soluble in water and most common organic solvents such as acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, ethyl acetate, and toluene. It melts at 84 degrees C and boils at 77 degrees C. Technical-grade acrylonitrile is more than 99% pure and always contains a polymerization inhibitor. Acrylonitrile is a reactive chemical that polymerizes spontaneously, when heated, or in the presence of a strong alkali unless it is inhibited, usually with ethylhydroquinone. Acrylonitrile is a commodity petrochemical that is a significant propylene derivative. It is manufactured by the ammoxidation of propylene. Major uses for acrylonitrile are as a monomer for such products as polyacrylonitrile for acrylic fibers, in ABS and SAN resin manufacture as a modifying monomer, and as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of adiponitrile, acrylamide and a variety of other chemicals.


Acrylonitrile is produced by ammoxidation of propylene. Propyelne, ammonia and air are  reacted in a fluidised bed reactor to produce acrylonitrile with  acetonitrole and hydrogen cyanide as by products. The  original  catalyst  consisted  of  bismuth  phosphomolybdate  on  silica,  but  recent  catalyst  developments have improved yields and can boost capacity of existing plants by 20%.  BP  Amco  Chemicals,  Asahi  Chemicals,  and  Mitsubishi  Chemicals  are  working  on  a  new  generation propane based technology.  Since  the  price  of  propane  is  lower  than  that  of  propylene,  producers  have  focused  on  the  research on propane ammoxidation process for producing acrylonitrile.


 Acrylonitrile is primarily used in the manufacture of acrylic and modacrylic fibers.  It is also used as a raw material in the manufacture of plastics (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and styrene-acrylonitrile resins), adiponitrile, acrylamide, and nitrile rubbers and barrier resins


Acrylonitrile  is  used  as  feedstock  for  the  production  of  products  such  as acrylamide,  acrylic  fibers, adiponitrile, ABS and SAN resins, nitrile rubber


Reliance Industries Ltd., is the only producer of acrylonitrile in India

Installed capacity:                       41,000 metric tonne per annum

Indian demand:                            Around 1,40,000 metric tonne per annum.


At present, the world total production capacity of acrylonitrile is 6.4 million metric tonne per year.  The enterprises with large production capacity are INEOS Group, with production capacity of  1.043  million  metric  tonne  per  year,  Ascend  Performance  Materials,  Inc.  of  America,  with  production  capacity  of  520,000  metric  tonne  per  year,  Japan  Asahi  Kasei  of  500,000  metric  tonne per year.  The world acrylonitrile demand is about 6 million metric tonne.  The major world acrylonitrile consuming regions are Asia, Europe and North America.

Source: NPCS Team

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