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Investment Opportunity in Drugs & Pharmaceutical Projects

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Investment Opportunity in Drugs & Pharmaceutical Projects

Author: NPCS Board
Format: Hardcover
ISBN: 9789381039212
Code: NI5
Pages: 117
Price: Rs. 1,895.00   US$ 50.95

Published: 2013
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***********Limited Edition- available in Photostat Version Only************

A pharmaceutical drug (medicine or medication and officially medicinal product) is a drug used in health care. Such drugs aid the diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease. Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Pharmaceutical or drug or medicines are classified in various other groups besides their origin on the basis of pharmacological properties like mode of action and their pharmacological action or activity, such as by chemical properties, mode or route of administration, biological system affected, or therapeutic effects. An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). The Pharmaceutical industry in India is the world's third-largest in terms of volume. The total turnover of India's pharmaceuticals industry between 2008 and September 2009 was US$21.04 billion. While the domestic market was worth US$12.26 billion. The industry holds a market share of $14 billion in the United States.
The pharmaceutical industry has been one of the fastest growing segments of the Indian manufacturing sector with an average annual growth rate of about 14%. It is projected to grow at an average annual rate exceeding 15% during 2007-2010 and is likely to reach the level of about USD 23 to 28 bn. This growth would be fuelled mainly by (i) access to low cost and high volume of generic drugs, (ii) mergers and acquisitions, (iv) industry consolidation, and (v) high growth of contract manufacturing. According to the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), another apex industry association, there are some 6,000 firms engaged in the sector. In terms of revenue generation, there are 100 big companies (including subsidiaries of MNCs) each with sales of at least USD 650,000, 200 medium size companies with sales ranging between USD 210,400 and USD 650,000; and 5700 small companies with sales of less than USD 210,400. India is the world's leading producer of generic drugs; its annual per capita consumption of pharmaceuticals has been among the lowest placed approximately at USD 4.50 per person as compared to USD 820 in the United States and USD 13 in China. Indian pharmaceutical companies now supply nearly all the country's demand for formulations and nearly 70% of its demand for bulk drugs. The Indian firms produce nearly 60,000 generic brands in 60 therapeutic categories and between 350 and 400 bulk drugs. India's drug market consists mainly of second and third generation drugs no longer subject to patent protection in the developed world.
The content of the book includes information about drugs and pharmaceuticals. The major contents of this book are project profiles of projects like Drugs and Pharmaceutical Industries in India, L-Ascorbic Acid, Pharmaceutical Unit, Liquid Glucose, Glucose Saline, IV Fluids, Paracetamol, Sorbitol, Aspirin and Ibuprofen.
Project profile contains information like properties, market survey, manufacturing, process flow diagram, raw material suppliers, suppliers of plant and machinery, plant economics, land and building, plant and machinery, fixed capital, working capital requirement/month, total working capital/month, total capital investment, turn over/annum, profit sales ratio, rate of return, breakeven point (B.E.P)
This book is very useful for new entrepreneurs, technical institutions, existing units and technocrats.

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Related Books


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1. Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Industry in India
2. L-Ascorbic Acid
3. Pharmaceutical Unit
4. Liquid Glucose
5. Glucose Saline
6. I.V. Fluids
7. Paracetamol
8. Sorbitol
9. Aspirin
10. Ibuprofen

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Sample Chapters

(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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I.v. Fluids


Intravenous fluids are fluids which are intended to be administered to a patient intravenously, directly through the circulatory system. These fluids must be sterile to protect patients from injury, and there are a number of different types available for use. Many companies manufacture packaged intravenous fluids, as well as products which can be mixed with sterile water to prepare a solution for intravenous administration.

Fluids are given when someone’s body fluid volume falls. There are a number of things which can cause a drop in fluid volume. Vomiting and diarrhea are a classic example, which is why people are encouraged to drink fluids when they are sick, to keep their fluid volume stable. Another cause is blood loss, which causes problems both because people lose blood products, and because they experience a loss in fluid volume. Electrolyte levels in the blood can also become unstable as a result of rapid changes in fluid volume, in which case intravenous fluids can be used to restore the balance.

Intravenous fluids can be broken into two broad groups. Crystalloids such as saline solutions contain a solution of molecules which can dissolve in water. When crystalloids are administered, they tend to create low osmotic pressure, allowing fluid to move across the blood vessels, and this can be linked with edema. Colloids contain particles which are not soluble in water, and they create high osmotic pressure, attracting fluid into the blood vessels. Blood is an example of a commonly administered intravenous colloid.

In nursing homes and hospital where patients are suffering from acute dehydration or considerable debilitating conditions, the intra venous fluids are used as IV drips. The basic function of IV fluids is to replenish the body fluids. Although there are a number of IV fluids but generally three types of IV fluids are used in hospitals as IV drips. They are as follows:

     1.   Dextrose injection fluid

     2.   Dextrose and sodium chloride injection fluid

     3.   Sodium chloride injection solution (Saline solution).

When saline is injected intravenously, it compensate the deficiency of sodium ions when dextrose is injected it gives energy due to glucose content of it when dextro-saline is given in combination, it replenishes the dehydration as well as gives energy thereby recouping debility syndrome and also in general take care of malaise.


Dextrose (D-glucose, Corn Sugar, Starch Sugar, Blood Sugar, Grape Sugar) is by for the most abundant Sugar in nature and occurs either in the free state (mono saccharine form) or chemically linked with other sugar varieties. In the free state, it occurs in substantial quantities in honey, fruits, and berries. As a polymer of a hydro dextrose units, it occurs in starch, cellulose, and glycogen. Sucrose is a disaccharide of dextrose and fructose. Commercial production of dextrose by hydrolysis of starch yields white crystalline sugars that are either anhydrous (C6H12O6) or hydrated (C6H12O6H2O).


Dextrose Solution (5%) is an isotonic solution and supplies calories to human body instantaneously without disturbing the electrolytic balance.


The substance Dextrose, known under the synonym anhydrous dextrose, is used in the preparation of Dextrose injection.

The name ‘Dextrose’ is used to preserve a distinction from Glucose syrup, a preparation made by heating starch with water in presence of a small proportion of acid until the hydrolysis has reached a suitable stage. Glucose syrup is very viscous syrup of approximately the following composition: -

                 Dextrin                                    40%

                 Maltose                                  20%

                 D-Glucose                              20%

                 Water                                      20%

It is an important commercial product, and is used (e.g. in the manufacture of sweets) chiefly because of the sticky, gum-like dextrin it contains.


Sodium Chloride (sodium chloride (sodium chloride injection) injection) Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution for fluid and electrolyte replenishment in single dose containers for intravenous administration. It contains no antimicrobial agents.

The nominal pH is 5.5 (4.5 to 7.0). Composition, osmolarity, and ionic concentration are shown below:

0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP contains 4.5 g/L Sodium Chloride (sodium chloride (sodium chloride injection) injection), USP (NaCl) with an osmolarity of 154 mOsmol/L (calc). It contains 77 mEq/L sodium and 77 mEq/L chloride.

0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP contains 9 g/L Sodium Chloride (sodium chloride (sodium chloride injection) injection), USP (NaCl) with an osmolarity of 308 mOsmol/L (calc). It contains 154 mEq/L sodium and 154 mEq/L chloride.

Types of Fluids

There are many options while choosing IV fluids:

                                          Glucose            Na+                 K+                  Cl-              Lactate         Comments                                                            (g/L)           (mEq/L)        (mEq/L)        (mEQ/L)        (mEq/L)

Normal saline (0.9%)                       0                  154                  0                  154                  0               maintenance,                                                                                                                                                                     resuscitation

Half-normal saline (0.45%)            0                   77                   0                   77                   0               maintenance

Ringer’s lactate                                  0                  130                  4                  109                 28              3 mEq/L Ca2+ as well

D5W                                                   50                   0                    0                    0                    0               maintenance

D5W + 1/2%NS                                50                  77                                         77                                     

2/3 + 1/3                                                                                                                                                            

normal plasma                                                                                                                                 


There are four main ranges of application of highly specialized intravenous infusion solutions:

     1.   Treatment of discarded water and electrolyte metabolism, especially in severe cases.

     2.   Therapy of acid base in balances.

     3.   The volume substitution and volume replacement in surgery of accident victim suffering blood loss.

Paratral nutrition for severally ill and post-operative patients

Grades of Iv Fluids

I.V. fluids or Intravenous fluids are life saving drugs, which are widely used in surgery, pediatrics, urology, obstetrics and gynecology.

I.V. fluids are given mostly to patients suffering from dehydration, diarrhorea, vomiting, gastroenteritis and excessive perspiration.

There are various intravenous transfusion solutions manufactured for use in medicine such as dextrose solutions, sodium chloride solutions, dextrose-sodium chloride combination solutions, multiple electrolyte solutions, diuretic solution, peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis solutions, amino acid solutions, plasma volume expanders and anticoagulation solutions for collecting blood etc.

Fluids of various grades that can be produced include the following :-

     1.   Transfusion normal saline IP 540 ml. in glass bottle USP II.

     2.   Transfusion dextrose 5% IP 540 ml. in glass bottle USP II.

     3.   Mannitol 20% BP 250 ml.

     4.   Acid solution A LP 75 ml. in 540 ml. glass bottle.

     5.   Acid solution B 75 ml. in 375 ml. glass bottle.

     6.   Injection dextrose 10% IP 540 ml.

     7.   Injection dextrose 20% IP 540 ml.

     8.   Metronidizole with 100 ml/500 mg.

     9.   Metronidizole with 0.5% 100 ml.

    10.   Dextrose 5% and sodium chloride 0.9% 540 ml.

    11.   Dinger lactates USP.

    12.   Elyte-P, Elyte-M and Elyte-G.

    13.   Elyte I.V. 100 ml.

    14.   Elgly - D.

    15.   Water for injection in 10 ml. glass ampoules.

Manufacturing Process

The basic raw materials for the production of IV solutions are water, dextrose, and specific pharmaceutical drugs.

The process of manufacture of Dextrose, sodium chloride and Dextrose sodium chloride fluids consist mainly 3 steps.

      I.   Distilled Water preparation.

      II.   Solution making by adding proper quality of ingredients.

     III.   Automatic Aseptic PVC (Medicinal Grade) Bottle Filling & Sealing.


The water distillation unit is fed with fully dematerialized water, the distillate generally prepared by multiple evaporation and subsequent condensation.

Water for injection is prepared by a simple process called multiple stage evaporation. The raw water is first treated with KMnO4 solution (Wt.% 0.5 - 1.90) in order to remove the odour and microorganism present in the water. Next comes the main step of the process distillation in 3 repeated times.

Distillation in a method of separation of substances which differ appreciably their vapour press is a method of separation. There are various types of distillation methods using different equipments in the pharmaceutical industry. Fractional distillation is highly effective in the point of view of unity of the separated liquid. The raw water heated in the reboiler to get vaporized. This vapor is changed in condenser and transferred to the reboiler of distillation unit. This repeated distillation makes highly pure water.

Water for injection is to be minimum required quantity of pure NaCl is added prior to filling and sealing vessels. Sodium chloride injection water contains (0.9 %) weight per volume of Sodium chloride.


The method used in the preparation of I.V. fluids is the same except little modification in certain basis. In most of the cases the method involves mixing of various ingredients in proper concentration followed by dissolution in pyrogen free distilled water under controlled conditions of temperature, pH particulate matter, pyrogenicity and aseptic environment.

Dextrose 5 % injection contains 540 ml. of I.V. solution with Dextrose 27 gr. in a glass bottle.

Dextrose-Sodium chloride injection contains 540 ml. of fluid with Dextrose 27 gr. and Sodium chloride 4.86 gr. in a glass bottle.

Sodium chloride injection contains 540 ml. of fluid with sodium chloride 4.86 gr. in a glass bottle.

I.V. solution may be of different types as per requirements. The major solutions are as follows.

    (a)   Common solutions                     -          5% dextrose

           5% dextrose with 0.9% Nacl

    (b)   High Caloric solution                  -          10% dextrose

           20% dextrose

           50% dextrose

           16% dextrose with normal salinic (DNS)

    (c)   Multiple Electrolyte

    (d)   Renal solution manmtol 10 and 20%


     1.   Weighing of various ingredients for dissolution.

     2.   Pyrogen free distilled water is collected in a reactor and weighed ingredients are dissolved in appropriate manner. The mixer is set as per the finished product requirement.

     3.   The solution from this reactor pumped through serial filtration to retain organism, particulate matter and other carbonaceous matter.

     4.   The solution is then filled in plastic polyethylene bottles and sealed.

Suppliers of Plant and Machinery

Mr. Yogesh Mehta M/s. YOGESHWAR MACHINERY MFG CO. Address: Shed 2, Bajrang Estate, Nr. Nagarvel Hanuman, Amraiwadi, Ahmedabad-380026, Gujarat (India). Phone: +91- 79 - 65440260 Mobile No.: +91-9376124131 Email: [email protected] Website:

Mr. Arvind Mewada Mr. Dharampal Singh M/s. Parth Engineers & Consultant Address: Plot No. C-1/4519, Phase - IV, B/h. Indo German Tool Room, G.I.D.C, Vatva, Ahmedabad – 382445, Gujarat, INDIA. Phone : +91-79-25841154, +91-79-25841155 Mobile: +91-9825015826 , +91-9825015825 E-mail : [email protected] , [email protected]

The Sonthalia Group Address: CF-255, Salt Lake City, Sector-1, Kolkata - 700 064, India Phone: +(91)-(33)-23218274/23218276/23218316 Fax: +(91)-(33)-23371468/23218421 Website:

Motive Powers, Inc. Mumbai Address: 24, Whispering Palms Shopping Centre Akruli Road Lokhandwala Township, Kandivli (East), Mumbai - 400 101, India Phone: +(91)-(22)-28852489 Fax: +(91)-(22)-28851324 Website:

Ionics Environmental Solutions Address: No. 2, 4th Floor, Third Cross Street, V. P Colony, Ayanavaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 600 023, India Phone: +(91)-(44)-65555035/26744500/42726001  Fax: +(91)-(44)-26744500 Mobile / Cell Phone: +(91)-9940477548 Website:

Firetech Boilers Private Limited Address: Firertech House, 211, 38th Main, 2nd Cross, BTM Layout, 2nd Stage, Bangalore- 560 068, India Phone: +(91)-(80)-26683686/51200466    Fax: +(91)-(80)-26683921 Website:

Vasu Pumps and Systems Private Limited Address: 1/9 B, Jindal House, Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi - 110 002, India Phone: +(91)-(11)-55358060   Fax: +(91)-(11)-23214651


Alice Health Care Private Limited Address: No. C - 44, Industrial Area, Phase - 3, S. A. S. Nagar, Mohali - 160 055, India Phone: +(91)-(172)-4627046 Fax: +(91)-(172)-4627046 Mobile / Cell Phone: +(91)-9356338242 Website:

Mehta Traders Address: C - 4, Indraloc, Old Nagardas Road, Andheri East, Mumbai - 400 069, India Phone: +(91)-(22)-66991723 Fax: +(91)-(22)-28342934 Mobile / Cell Phone: +(91)-9819608997 Website:

Shiv Corporation Address: No. 1 - F, Vallabh Avenue, Chandravali Char Rasta, Water Tank Road, Karelibaug, Vadodara - 390 018, India Phone: +(91)-(265)-2464127 Mobile / Cell Phone: +(91)-9825107848 Website:

Brooks Corporation Address: Gr. 24, T V Industrial Estate, 248 Worli Road, S.k Ahire Marg, Mumbai- 400 030, India Phone: +(91)-(22)-24953501/24953499    Fax: +(91)-(22)-24939740 Website:

Chemlon International Address: 215, IInd Floor, DLF Galleria, DLF Phase IV, Gurgaon - 122 009, India Phone: +(91)-(124)-4107580/2574012/4101552   Fax: +(91)-(124)-4054581 Website:


Rated Plant capacity          =      30000.00 BOTTLES/day

                                         =      9000000.00 BOTTLES/annum

                                                 I.V. FLUID (FFS TECHNOLOGY)

                                                 NORMAL SALINE, DEXTROSE 5% AND

                                                 S C 0.225%), DEXTROSE 10% INJ.

                                                 (10% DA), DEXTROSE 5% INJ. (5%

                                                 DA), DEXTROSE 5% & SC 0.9% INJ


     1.   Land Area Required 5 Acres                                                                        Rs.    2,20,00,000.00

     2.   Building                                                                                                     Rs.    4,77,50,000.00

TOTAL COST OF PLANT & MACHINERY                                       TOTAL             Rs.    7,96,09,909.00


     1.   LAND & BUILDING                                                                                     Rs.    6,97,50,000.00

     2.   PLANT & MACHINERY                                                                               Rs.    7,96,09,909.00

     3.   OTHER FIXED ASSETS                                                                             Rs.    2,07,50,000.00

                                                                                                     TOTAL             Rs.  17,01,09,909.00


     1.   NaCl Salt 750 Kgs.                                                                                     Rs.           15,000.00

     2.   Dextrose 37800 Kgs.                                                                                  Rs.      30,24,000.00

     3.   PP Resin 45000 Kgs.                                                                                  Rs.      54,00,000.00

     4.   Laboratory & ETP Chemicals                                                                      Rs.           50,000.00

     5.   Printed Packing Materials like label, Sticker etc. for 750000 Nos.                                                               Rs.        7,50,000.00

     6.   Carton Boxes for 24 bottles each 31500 Nos.                                              Rs.        6,30,000.00

     7.   Consumables Store                                                                                    Rs.           50,000.00

                                                                                                     TOTAL             Rs.      99,19,000.00


     1.   RAW MATERIAL                                                                                         Rs.      99,19,000.00

     2.   SALARY & WAGES                                                                                    Rs.      13,59,600.00

     3.   UTILITIES & OVERHEADS                                                                          Rs.      12,35,000.00

                                                                                                     TOTAL             Rs.    1,25,13,600.00


           TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL                                                                              Rs.  17,01,09,909.00

           TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL FOR 3 MONTHS                                               Rs.    3,75,40,800.00

                                                                                                     TOTAL             Rs.  20,76,50,709.00


     1.   By Sale of 1800000 Bottles 1000 ml each Normal Saline NS                                                                               Rs.    5,40,00,000.00

     2.   By Sale of 1800000 Bottles 1000 ml each Dextrose 5% & Sodium Chloride 0.225%.                                            Rs.    5,40,00,000.00

     3.   By Sale of 1800000 Bottles 1000 ml each Dextrose 10% injection 10% DA                                                          Rs.    5,40,00,000.00

     4.   By Sale of 1800000 Bottles 1000 ml each Dextrose 5% Injection 5% DA                                                             Rs.    5,40,00,000.00

     5.   By Sale of 1800000 Bottles 1000 ml each Dextrose 5% & Sodium Chloride 0.9% Inj. DNS                                   Rs.    5,40,00,000.00

                                                                                                     TOTAL             Rs.  27,00,00,000.00


                         =   27,00,00,000.00 - 19,01,56,521.43

                         =   7,98,43,478.57

           PROFIT SALES RATIO  =   Profit / Sales x 100

                                                =   29.57%

           RATE OF RETURN   =  Operating profit / T.C.I x 100

                                          =  38.45%

           BREAK EVEN POINT (B.E.P)

                                          FIXED COSTS

           B.E.P.  =    ———————————————  X 100

                                   FIXED COSTS + PROFIT

                       =    39.65%

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NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

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