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Food Packaging Technology Handbook (3rd Revised Edition)

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Food Packaging Technology Handbook (3rd Revised Edition)

Author: NIIR Board of Consultants Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9788193733981
Code: NI93
Pages: 528
Price: Rs. 1,895.00   US$ 200.00

Published: 2020
Publisher: NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES
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Food Packaging Technology Handbook (3rd Revised Edition)
(Biodegradable Films, Materials , Polymers, Aseptic Packaging, Labels and Labelling, Packaging of Cashew Nuts, Dairy Products, Milk, Fish, Meat, Shrimps, Canning of Vegetables, Fruits with details of Machinery and Equipments)





Food packaging technology is primarily concerned with packaging activities regarding protection of food products from biological, physical or chemical agents. With the growth of modern civilization, people are getting more concerned with hygiene and quality of the food.
The packaging industry’s growth has led to greater specialization and sophistication from the point of view of health and environment friendliness of packing material. The demand on the packaging industry is challenging, given the increasing environmental awareness among communities. The food packaging industry is growing at the rate of 22 to 25 per cent per annum. In near future it is going to be a booming industry.
Packaging has played a critical role as a differentiator in promoting brands, especially for packaged food products. With the increase in urbanization and emergence of supermarkets and hypermarkets, differentiating food products through the aesthetic appeal of packaging has become important for food manufacturers. Furthermore, consumers are increasingly paying more attention to the ingredients and contents of the package. This provides an opportunity for the food packaging technology & equipment manufacturers as food manufacturers need to differentiate their products by conveying the benefits of packaging technology on the labels and packets, such as shelf life, the time required for preparing the food, and nutritional contents to the consumers.
Biodegradable packaging is produced using biopolymers, which are molecules often found in living organisms, like cellulose and proteins. This means they can be safely consumed, degrade quickly, and often be created from waste plant products. The main applications of bio-based and biodegradable plastics are currently in (food) packaging, food service ware, (shopping) bags, fibres/nonwovens and agricultural applications. Bio-based drop-in plastics such as bio-PE and bio-PET are identical to fossil-based counterparts and can be used in exactly the same applications.
The more recently developed bio-based plastics (bio-PE and bio-PET) are also mainly used in food packaging. The increasing awareness of the environmental impact of packaging products and a willingness to replace packaging materials by alternatives with e.g. a lower carbon footprint or made from renewable resources are the main driver for development and the use of these materials.
This book gives comprehensive account of food packaging, which is the most important part to preserve the food for a long time. The present volume has been written primarily for the benefit of new entrepreneurs, technologists, technical libraries and for those who want to diversify in the field of food industry.

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Contents

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CONTENTS
1. Introduction
Containment
Protection/Preservation
Communication
Utility
Packaging Systems
Primary Packaging
Secondary Packaging
Tertiary Package
Unit Load
Consumer/Industrial Packaging
Biodegradable Packaging
Development of Bioplastic
Biopolymers
Starch Based Plastics (Biodegradable)
Bio-based and Biodegradable Plastics from
Genetically Modified Organisms

2. Biodegradable films for Food Packaging
and Application of Nanotechnology in
Biodegradable Food Packaging
Biodegradable Polymer Films for Food Packaging
Biodegradable Polymers from Biomass Products
Starch
Cellulose
Other Materials
Pectin
Chitin and Chitosan
Proteins
Advantage and Limitations of Biodegradable
Polymer
Nanotechnology in Biodegradable Polymer

3. Biodegradable Materials for Food Packaging
Applications
Materials
Aliphatic Polyesters
Manufacturing Process
Manufacturing Filament Yarn
Polymerization
Drying
Melt Spinning
Drawing the Fiber
Winding
Manufacturing Staple Fiber
Drawing Tow
Crimping
Setting
Cutting
Polylactide Aliphatic Copolymer (CPLA)
Polycaprolactone (PCL)
Synthesis and Physicochemical Properties of
PCL
Poly (Lactic Acid) (PLA)
PLA Processing
Extrusion
Injection Molding
Injection Stretch Blow Molding
Cast Film and Sheet
Thermoforming
Polyurethane Foams
Processing Technology
Fillers for Bio based Packaging Materials
Cellulose Fiber
Wood Fiber
Technical Requirements
Types of Degradable Plastic
Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic
Fossil Resources
Hydro-Biodegradable Plastics

4. Biodegradable Polymers in Food Packaging
Polymers
Biopolymers
Origin and Description of Biobased Polymers
Starch
Production Process
Polylactic Acid
Poly (hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs)
PHAs Production
Polycaprolactone (PCL)
Cellulose and Derivatives

5. Packaging Materials for Processed Foods
Metal Cans
Materials Used in Can Manufacture
The Steel Base
Thickness of Steel Base
Mechanical Properties
Basic Types of Metal Plate
Surface Finish
The Tin Coating
Marking of Differentially-Coated Plate
K Grade Tinplate
Grading of Tinplate
General
Tin-Free-Steel (TFS) Sheets
Tinplate and Its Application
Aluminium Cans
Manufacture of Three-piece Cans
Side Seam Welding
Types of Side Seam Welders
Other Types of Side Seams
Can Ends
Manufacture of Ends
Flanging, Beading and Double Seaming
Lacquers and Their Application
Plastic Lamination
The Future for Can Coatings
Discolouration in Lacquered Cans
Lacquer Performance
The Cans
The Two-Piece Can
DRD Cans
D&I or DWI Cans
Container Innovations
Corrosion of Tinplate
Corrosion in Lacquered Cans
Permissible Limits of Tin
Limits for Lead
Can Sizes
Inspection and Tear-down Examination of
Double Seam
On the Seam
After Tear Down
Critical Parameters
Optical Measurements
Performance Testing
Selection of Tin Coating Depending on the
Corrosivity of Packs
Specifications for the Metal Cans
Glass Containers
Composition of Glass
Improvements in Glass Manufacture
Hot and Cold End Treatment of Surface
Coating
Lightweight Containers
Glass Container Characteristics
Basic Parts of a Glass Container
Glass Neck Ring Finish
Closures for Glass Containers
Parts of Glass Closures
Vacuum Closures for Glass Containers
(i) Pry-off (side-seal) Cap
(ii) Lug-type or Twist Cap (Non-Baby Food Type)
(iii) Lug Type Caps for Baby Foods
(iv) PT (Press-on, twist-off cap)
Sealing of Glass Containers
Crown Corks
Procedure for Determining Capper Efficiency
Evaluation of Glass Container Closures
Pry-off (side seal) Type Caps
Lug Type Caps
Vacuum Measurements
PT (Press-on, twist-off) Cap
Cocked-up Cap and Dud Detections
Sampling Plan and Inspection
Tamper-Evidence of Processed Containers
Plastic Packaging Material
General Properties
Polyethylene (PE)
Polypropylene (PP)
Polyethylene Terephthlate (Polyester) (PET)
Polyamide (PA) or Nylon
Polyvinylchloride (PVC)
Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC)
Polystyrene (PS)
Polycarbonate
Ethylvinylalcohol (EVOH)
Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)
Regenerated Cellulose (Cellophane)
Cellulose Acetate (CA)
Paper, Paperboard and Foil
Pack Requirements
Water Vapour Transmission (WVTR) of Plastics
Oxygen Absorption
Fabrication of Flexible and Rigid Plastic
Packages
Container Fabrication
PP/Foil/PP Laminated Tray
Co-extrusion
Closures for Hot-Fill or Retortable Plastic
Containers
Cartons for Liquids
Packaging Requirements for Distribution
Off-flavours in Packed Food
Can and Can Coatings
Plastic Packaging
Economic Considerations

6. Packaging Trend of Carbonated and “Still”
Beverages
Introduction
Carbonated Beverages
Basic Manufacturing/Packaging Technology
Glass Bottles
Plastic Bottles
Bottling System
Bottle Filling
Bottle Crowning or Bottle Capping
Aluminium Cans
Non-Carbonated Beverages / “Still” Drinks
Aseptic Packaging System (Tetrapak)
Plastic Bottles
Plastic Closures
Purpose of Hot Filling
Flexible Pouches
Retortable Pouches
Bag-In-Box System
(a) Bags
(b) Containers
(c) Fillers



7. Aseptic Packaging of Foodstuffs
Introduction
The Product and Performance Range
The Functionality of Steam Aseptic Machines
Sterilization of Packaging Material
Forming the Cups
Positioning Stations
Sterile Zone
The Machine Technology
Drive and Control Engineering
Dosing Techniques
Labelling
Guidelines on Aseptic Packaging
Aseptic Packaging and Low-Germ Packaging
Aseptic Packaging
Low-Germ and Recontamination - Free
Packaging

8. Modified Atmosphere Packaging
Gases Used in Map
Techniques of Map
Gas Flushing
Compensated Vaccuum
Different Modified Atmospheres
High Oxygen Atmosphere Packaging
Low Oxygen Atmosphere Packaging
Vaccuum Packaging
Active Packaging or Functional Packaging or
Interactive Packaging
Packaging Materials

9. Labels and Labelling
Definition
Purpose of Labels
Identification
Information
Decoration
Types of Labels
Plain Paper Labels
Pre-gummed Paper Labels
Thermoplastic Paper Labels
Pressure-sensitive Paper Labels
Plain Paper Labels
Pre-gummed Paper Labels
Thermoplastic Labels
Pressure Sensitive Labels or Self-Adhesive Labels
Swing Labels — Tie on Tags
Printing of Labels
Alternative Markings
Surface Treatment
Materials Used for Labels
Papers
Foil and Laminates
Plastics
Adhesives
Labelling Machinery
Regulations
Labels for Freight Containers
Information
Position
Language
Pictorial Markings for Handling Instruction
IS
Recent Trends

10. Packaging of Milk
Packaging of Milk and Milk Products
Liquid Milk
Concentrated Milks
Milk Powder
Ice Creams
Butter
Ghee
Cheese
Indigenous Milk Products

11. Trends for Cheese and Other Dairy Products
Packaging
Milk Powder-Bulk
Milk Powder-Retail
Butter
Yogurt
Ice-Cream
Cheese
Cheese - Retail

12. Packaging of Malted Milk Foods
Introduction
Present Packaging System
Glass Containers
Variant
Advantages
Disadvantages
Modality of Usage
Pet Containers
Varient
Advantages
Disadvantages
Modality of Usage
Flexible Packaging Materials
Process of Packaging (Schematic)
Varient
Browns (Malted milk food)
Whites (Malted milk food)
Nutritional Health Beverage
Advantages
Disadvantages
Modality of Usage
Significance of Packaging on FFS
Functional Requirement

13. Packaging of Cashew Nuts
Introduction
Packaging System
(a) Specification of Tinplate Containers
(b) Specification for CFB Box
Recent Developments
Alternate Packaging Systems
(a) Bag - in - Box (Flexible) System
(b) Bag - in - Box (Semirigid System)
Consumer Packs

14. Lined Cartons for Packaging of Food
Products
Concept of Lined Carton Packaging System
Manufacture of Lined Cartons
Sequence of Operation
Printing
Varnish/lamination
Punching
Folding & Lining
Carton Filling & Sealing Machines
Sequence of Operation
Vacuum & Gas Flushing
Constituents of the Lined Carton
Tests
Liners
Criteria for the Selection of Liners
1. The Product to be packed which includes
2. Performance properties include
3. Marketing Demands include
Versatility of Lined Cartons
Product: Package Compatibility
Future Prospects of the Lined Carton Packaging
System

15. Canning of Vegetables and Animal Products
Asparagus
White Variety
Beans
Green (french waxed)
Broad Bean, Field Bean, Pigeon Pea (green) and
Cluster Bean
Cabbage
Carrots
Cauliflower
Corn
Whole-Grain Corn
Cream Style Corn
Creamogenised Corn
Vaccum-Packed Whole-Kernel Corn without
Brine
Cultivation and Maturity
Husking
Silking
Grading
Whole-grain Corn
Filling
Cream-style Corn
Handling of A10 Cans of Cream-style Corn
Corn-on-the-Cob
Drumsticks
Gourds (Cucurbits)
Mushroom
Okra
Peas
Potato
Spinach
Tomato
Crushed Tomato
Canning of Acidified Vegetables
A. Lowering the pH Using Acid
B. Lowering the pH by Fermentation
Fermentation Procedure
Microbial Changes during Fermentation
pH Considerations in the Thermal Processing of
Acidified Vegetables
Canning of Fermented Vegetables
Sterilisation Requirements
Process Schedule for Vegetables Packed in Glass
Containers
Thermal Process Schedule for Marine and
Animal Products
Process Schedule for Soups

16. Canning of Fruit Products
pH Considerations in the Canning of Fruits
Strength of Covering Syrup
Pink Discolouration in Canned Fruits
Apricot
Cherries
Guava
Grapes
Mango
Muskmelon (Cucutnis melo)
Mandarin Orange (Citrus reticulata, Blanco)
Segments
Papaya (Carica papaya)
Peaches
Pears
Pineapple
Process Schedule
Crushed Pineapple
Plums
Canned Dried Prunes
Strawberries
Fruit Cocktail
Strained Baby Foods
Fruit Juices, Beverages, Pulps and Concentrates
Tomato Juice

17. Packaging of Fish in Modified Atmospheres
Introduction
Modified Atmosphere Packaging
Application to Fish
Norwegian Practice
Disadvantages
Conclusion

18. Packaging of Fresh Meat
Product Characteristics
Packaging Principles
Packaging Materials & Techniques

19. Packaging of Shrimps
Introduction
Product Forms
Processing and Packaging
(a) Glazing
(b) Code Slip
(c) Inner Wrap
(d) Primary Carton
(e) Master Carton
(f) Closure and Reinforcement
Marking
Storage and Transportation
Quality Control and Inspection System
New Trends
Packaging Requirements for IQF Shrimps
Consumer Packs for IQF Shrimps
1. Deep Drawn Plastic Pouches
2. Printed Preformed Pouches
Flexible Vacuum Packed Pouches in Paper
Board Cartons
Labelling and Marketing for IQF Shrimps

20. Equipment Commonly used for Food
Processing and Preservation
Design Considerations
Indian Scenario
Special Development Needs
High Speed Specialised Centrifugal Separators
Large Capacity Spray-drying and Roller-drying
Plants
Evaporation and Aroma Recovery Plants
Specialised Energy Efficient Heat Exchangers
Aseptic Processing and Packaging Equipment
Special Types of Forming and Cooking
Machinery
Latest Types of Freezing and Freeze Drying
Equipment
System Designs
R & D Efforts
Food Machinery Listing
Equipments commonly used in Food
Preservation
Food Dehydration
(a) Sun Dryer
Solar Dryer
(b) Cabinet or Tray Dryer
(c) Tunnel Dryer
(d) Conveyor Dryer (Conveyor band dryer/belt
dryer)
(e) Spray dryer
(f) Freeze Dryer
(g) Drum Dryer
(h) Fluidized Bed Dryer
(i) Spouted Bed Dryer
(j) Flash Dryer
(k) Microwave Dryer
Food Irradiation
Food Irradiation Technology
(a) Ionizing Radiations
(b) Sources of Radiations
(c) Process Control
Food Freezing and Refrigeration
(a) Refrigeration Systems in Cold and Freezer
Storage
(b) Compression Refrigeration System
Ammonia Systems
Food Canning
Metal or Tin Cans
Glass Cans

21 Active Packaging
Active Packaging Technologies
Antimicrobial Packaging
Ethylene Scavengers
Oxygen Scavenging
Carbon Dioxide Scavenging or Release
Humidity Buffering Films and Liquid Water
Removal
Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
Aroma and Odour Removal
Regulations
Market Scenario

22. Nanotechnology in Food Packaging
Nanomaterials in Food Packaging
Nanocomposites
Silver Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites as
Antimicrobial Food Packaging Materials
Nanosensors
Oxygen Sensors
Stress and Temperature Sensors
Biosensors
Advantages Nanotechnology to Food Packaging
Market Scenario

23. BIS Specifications

24. Sample Plant Layouts

25. Photographs of Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details


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