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The Complete Technology Book on Flavoured Ice Cream (2nd Revised Edition)- Manufacturing Process, Flavours, Formulations with Machinery Details

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The Complete Technology Book on Flavoured Ice Cream (2nd Revised Edition)- Manufacturing Process, Flavours, Formulations with Machinery Details

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9788178331812
Code: NI184
Pages: 448
Price: Rs. 1,475.00   US$ 150.00

Published: 2019
Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
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Ice cream is a frozen-food, sweet in flavor and is consumed as a dessert all over the globe. Ice-cream comes in variety of flavors in which fruits, nuts and other ingredients can be added to enhance the nutritional value and organoleptic property of the product. It is stored in the freezing- temperature and contains mild preservatives. Ice Cream is a favourite food of millions around the world. Ice Cream is a palatable, nutritious and relatively inexpensive food. Ice Cream is composed of the mixture of food materials, such as milk products, sweetening materials, stabilizers, emulsifiers, flavours or egg products which are referred to as ingredients.
The rising demand for innovative flavors, formats and growing demand for impulsiveness to consume the product in developing countries is expected to drive the market growth. The increased demand for frozen desserts in the developed countries is supporting the sale of ice creams. The developing technologies have helped in enhancing and innovating new flavors in the ice creams which has also helped in fueling up the market share of the product. Ice Cream is among the largest supermarket food categories which is generating high revenue. The global ice cream industry is a prosperous industry and the positive growth momentum has attracted food giants to diversify and expand their product lines.
Some of the fundamentals of the book are composition of ice cream mixes, the role of the constituents, diet science and classification of ice cream, caloric content of ice cream and related products, milk fat content of ice cream, classification of ice cream and related products, artificially sweetened frozen dairy foods, ingredients of ice cream roles and properties, effect of sweetener on freezing point, influence on ice crystal size and texture, flavor, colour materials and preparation, ice cream mixer preparation, processing and mix calculations, the freezing process, the freezing point of ice cream mixes, ice cream handling, cleaning and sanitation, varieties, novelties and specials, molded cones, ice cream cone making, success story of natural ice cream, specifications of ice cream plant, process flow diagram, sample plant layout and photographs of machinery with supplier’s contact details.
A total guide to manufacturing and entrepreneurial success in one of today's most lucrative food industries. This book is one-stop guide to one of the fastest growing sectors of the food industry, where opportunities abound for manufacturers, retailers, and entrepreneurs. This is the only complete handbook on the commercial production of ice cream. It serves up a feast of how-to information, from concept to purchasing equipment.


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Contents

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CONTENTS
1. ICE CREAM-HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
Historical Background

2. COMPOSITION OF ICE CREAM MIXES
Composition
The Role of the Constituents
Milk Fat
Milk Solid Not Fat (MSNF)
Sweetener Solids
Egg Yolk Solids
Stabilizers
Emulsifiers
Total Solids
Water and Air
Flavour
Importance of flavour
Colour
Optional ingredients
The Balanced Mix
Conditions That Limit the Balancing of a Mix
Mix Properties
Mix Stability

3. DIET-SCIENCE AND CLASSIFICATION OF ICE CREAM
Nutritional Value
Energy Value and Nutrients
Energy Content of Food
Caloric content of Ice Cream and related Products
Energy Content of Ice Cream and Related Products
Protein Content of Ice Cream
Milk Fat Content of ice cream
Milk Fat Content
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates in Ice Cream
Minerals
Minerals in Ice Cream
Vitamins
Vitamins in Ice Cream
Palatability and Digestibility of Ice Cream
Classification of Ice Cream and Related Products
Commerical Grouping of Ice-Cream and
Related Products Plain Ice Cream
Chocolate
Fruit
Nut
Frozen Custard
Confection
Bisque
Puddings
Mousse
Variegated Ice Cream
Neapolitan
Ice Milk
Fruit Sherbet
Ice
Novelties
Frappe
Granite
Souffle
Frozen Yoghurt
Lacto
Fruit Salad
Fancy Moulded Ice Cream
This group includes
Mellorine-type Products
Artificially Sweetened Frozen Dairy Foods
Non Dairy Frozen Dessert
Labelling Requirement Grouping
Regulatory Type Classification

4. INGREDIENTS OF ICE CREAM-ROLES AND PROPERTIES
Sources of Milk Solids Not Fat
Milk
Milk Products used in Ice Cream Sources of Fat
Skim Milk
Butter Milk
Concentrated Skim Milk
Sweetened Condensed Milk
Skimmed Milk Powder
Special Commercial products
Whey Protein Concentrate
Mineral Salts
Unsalted Butter
Sweeteners
Sources of Sugar
Effect of Sweetener on Freezing point
Sucrose
Corn Sweeteners and Related Ingredients
Dextrose
Corn Syrup
Dried Corn Syrup
Invert Sugar
Honey
Other Sweeteners
Nonnutritive Sweeteners
Egg and Egg Products
Fat Replacers
Sugar Alcohols
Syrups
Stabilizers and Emulsifiers
Function of Stabilizers
Influence on Ice Crystal Size and Texture
Shape and Body Characteristics
Retention of Air
Role in Fat Destabilization
Control of Sandiness
Stabilizers
Casein
Sodium Alginate
Carrageenan
Guar Gum
Locust Bean Gum
Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC)
Pectin
Agar-Agar
Xanthan Gum
Hydroxypropy Methyl Cellulose
Other Gums
Starch
Stabilizer Blends
Emulsifiers
Type of Emulsifiers
Glycerides
Distilled Monoglyceride
Polysorbates
Polyglycerol Esters
Fruit Acid Esters
Ethoxylated Mono and Diglycerides
Egg Yolk Solids
Function of Emulsifiers
Whipping Ability and Overrun Control
Stiffness and Dryness
Secondary Effect of Emulsifiers
Selection of Stabilizer and Emulsifier
Processing the Cocoa Beans

5. FLAVOURS AND COLOURS-MATERIALS AND
PREPARATION 69
Flavours for Frozen Desserts
Vanilla
Imitation Vanilla Flavourings
Consistency in Vanilla Quality
Vanilla Ice Cream
Chocolate and Cocoa
Chocolate Ice Cream
Freezing Characteristics
Chocolate Confections
Fruits in Frozen Desserts
Fresh Fruit
Candied and Glaced Fruits
Dried Fruits
Procedures and Recipes
Strawberry Ice Cream
Raspberry Ice Cream
Peach Ice Cream
Cherry Ice Cream
Ice Cream with Complex Flavours
Sugar Free
Nuts
Spices and Salt
Colour in Frozen Desserts
Flavouring Lowfat and Nonfat Ice Cream

6. ICE CREAM MIXER-PREPARATION PROCESSING
AND MIX CALCULATIONS 85
Preparation of the Mix
Combining the Ingredients
Pasteurization of the Mix
Pasteurization Renders the Mix
There are two basic Methods of Pasteurization
Homogenizing the Mix
Physical Effect of Homogenization
Homogenizing Temperature
Location of Homogenizer
Pressure for Homogenization
Care of the Homogenizer
Cooling the Mix
Ageing the Mix
Making the Mix in a Vaccum pan
Forewarming
Concentrating the Dairy Products
Weighing the Concentrated Dairy Products
Adding Sugar and Stabilizer, and Pasteurizing
Flavouring Mixes
Cooling, Standardizing and Ageing
Packaging Mixes for Sale
Calculation of ice Cream Mixes
The Importance of Calculations
Mathematical processes Most Frequently Used
Methods of Calculating Mixes
Pearson Square Method
Arithmetical Method
Calculating Mixes with the Serum Point Method
Mix Decisions
Simple Mixes
Complex Mixes

7. THE FREEZING PROCESS
The Freezing Point of Solutions
The Frezzing Point of Ice Cream Mixes
Prefreezing Tests
Freezing Operations
Changes that take Place during the Freezing Process
Refrigeration Needed to Freeze Ice Cream
Types of Freezers
The Continuous Freezer
The Refrigeration System
Operating the Continuous Freezer
Batch Freezer
Freezing Procedure for Batch Freezers

8. ICE CREAM HANDLING
Considering the Package
Requirements for Packaging
Paper
Substance of Paper
Stiffness
Ink
Wax
Adhesive
Wax Content
Odour and Taint
Toxicity
Resistane to Deep Freezing
Leak Proofness
Paper Board
Thickness
Wax Content
Stiffness
Ink
Wax Quality
Adesive
Odour and Taint
Manufacturer's Joint
The Packaging Operation
Packaging for Direct Sale to Consumers
Economy in Packaging Operations
The Hardening Process
Factors Affecting Hardening Time
Types of Hardening Facilities
Rapid Hardening Systems
Handling, Storing and Shipping
Shipping with Dry Ice
Quality is the Goal

9. CLEANING AND SANITATION
Principles of Cleaning
Cleaning
Rinsing
Removal of Sediment
Removal of Fat
Removal of Proteins
Removal of Mineral Deposits
After Rinsing with Clean Water
Cleaning Agents
Alkalis
Acids
Water Chelating Agent
Emulsifiers and Wetting Agents
Protective Substances
Composite Cleaning Agents
Alkaline Composites
Sanitization of Equipment
Sanitary Environment
Hygienic Personnel
Test of the Finished Product
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)
HACCP Principles
Summary

10. DEFECTS AND GRADING OF ICE CREAM
Flavour Defects
Flavouring System
Sweetener System
Body and Texture Defects
Defects of Body
Defects of Texture
Colour
Package
Melting Quality
Defects of Melting Quality
Defects in Ice Cream, their Causes and Prevention
Evaluating Frozen Desserts
Scoring Methods
Ice Cream Clinics
11. VARIETIES, NOVELTIES AND SPECIALS
Plain Ice Cream
Formula
Variations
Vanilla
Strawberry
Rose
Coffee
Caramel
Mint
Candy Ice cream
Variations
Peppermint Stick
Butter Crunch
Peanut Brittle
Toffee
Mint Chips
Mithai Ice Cream (Gulabjamun)
Mithai Ice Cream (Rasogulla)
Mithai Ice Cream (Gajar Halwa)
Chocolate Ice Cream
Chocolate Malt
Chocolate Malt and Nuts
Chocolate Toffee
Chocolate Cool
Fruit Ice Cream
Variations
Banana
Pineapple
Apple
Orange
Orange Pineapple
Lemon
Grape
Custard Apple
Date
Sapota
Mango
Strawberry
Blueberry
Raspberry
Nut Ice Cream
Variations
Butterscotch
Almond Walnut
Almond Tofee
Peanut
Caramel Nut
Fruit and Nut
Coconut Pineapple
Tutti-Frutti
Banana Nut
Variegated or Rippled Ice Cream
Probiotic Ice-Cream
Manufacture of Preobiotic Ice-Cream
Labelling of Probiotic Foods
New Diet Science for Ice Cream
Sorbet and Ice Cream
Manufacturing Procedure
Ice Cream Mix
Sorbet
Freezing
Kulfi
Product Description
Technology
Innovations
Formulation of Kulfi
Optional Dairy Ingredients for Kulfi and Frozen Desserts
Sweet Fresh Cream and Fresh Milk
Frozen Cream
Fluid Whole and Skim Milk
Plain Condensed Skim Milk
Plain Condensed Whole Milk
Sweetened Condensed Whole or Skim Milk
Packaging
Physico-Chemical Aspects
Shelf Life
Decoration

12. ICE CREAM MICROBIOLOGY
Ice Cream as a Carrier Disease
The Bacterial Count of Ice Cream
Mix Ingredients as a Source of Bacteria
Dairy Products as a Source of Bacteria
Sugar as a Source of Bacteria
Stabilizers as a Source of Bacteria
Flavouring Materials as a Source of Bacteria
Strawberries, Raspberries or Black Berries
Peaches
Oranges and Lemons
Bananas and Mangoes
Dried Fruits
Fruit Juices
Nuts
Colours as a Source of Bacteria
Eggs as a Source of Bacteria
Destruction of Bacteria by Pasteurization
Recontamination of the Mix After Pasteurization
The Effect of Ageing on the Bacterial Count
The Effect of Freezing and Hardening on the Bacterial
Count.
Bacteriological Standards for Ice Cream
Milk and Milk Products
Ice Cream Defined
Classification of Ice Creams and Related Frozen Foods
Composition of Commercial Ice Cream
The Ingredients Used in the Manufacture of Ice Cream
Quality of Dairy Products for Iice Cream
Sweeteners for Ice Cream
Ice-Cream Stabilizers
Flavouring Materials
Preparation of the Ice-Cream Mix
Technical Skill Necessary
Procedure in Calculating a Mix
Homogenizing the Mix
Agening the Mix
Quality of Ice Cream
Ice-Cream defects
Body and Texture Defects
Colour Defects
Distribution of Ice Cream
Ice-Cream Making in the Home

13. METHODS OF LABORATORY TESTS
Judging Flavour and Aroma
Gerber Test for Fat in Milk and Cream
SNF and Total Solids in Milk by Lactometer
Analysis of Fat in ice Cream
Ether Extraction Test
Preparation of Sample
Procedure
Gerber Test
Apparatus and Reagents
Preparation of Sample
Procedure
Determination of Total Solids
Mojonnier Total Solids Test
Procedure
AQAC Official Method (AoAC International, 2000)
Determination of Acidity in Plain Ice Cream Mix
Determination of Free Fat in Ice Cream (Free Fat Estimate or FFE Value)
Apparatus and Reagents
Procedure
Calculation
Chromatographic Analysis
Stability to Heat Shock
Meltdown Test and Shape Retention
Farrall Homogenization Index
Measurement of Viscosity
Pipette Method
Borden Flow Meter Method
Brookfield Viscometer
Calculation
Test for Ammonia Leaks
Surface Tension
14. ICE CREAM NOVELTY IMPULSE PRODUCTS 255
Molded Novelties
Extruded Novelties
15. ICE CREAM SHELF-LIFE 259
Temperature Fluctuations and Ice Recrystalliation
The Role of Stabilizers
Maintaining Shelf-Life
16. ICE CREAM INGREDIENTS 263
Milkfat ( or "Butterfat") /FAT
Milk solids-Not-Fat
Lactose Crystallization
Sweeteners
Stabilizers
Locust Bean Gum
Emulsifiers
Polysorbate 80

17. MIX CALCULATIONS FOR ICE CREAM AND
FROZEN DAIRY DESSERTS
Problem 1
Solution
Problem 2
Solution
Problem 3
Problem 4
Problem 5
Problem 6
Problem 7 (Using Liquid Sweeteners)

18. STRUCTURE OF ICE CREAM
Colloidal Aspects of Structure
Ice Cream Meltdown
Structure from the Ice Crystals

19. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF THE FREEZING
PROCESS
The Process of Crystallization
Importance of Crystallization Rate
Importance of Temperature Fluctuations and
Re-Crystallization
Formation of the Glassy Phase in Frozen Foods
Formation of a Dilute Glass

20. ICE CREAM MANUFACTURE
Blending
Pasteurization
Homogenization
Ageing
Freezing and Hardening
Hardening

21. ICE CREAM FLAVOURS
Introduction
Vanilla
Chocolater and Cocoa
Fruit Ice Cream
Nuts in Ice Cream
Colour in Ice Cream

22. HOMEMADE ICE CREAM
Ingredients Used
Preparation of the Ice Cream Mix
Aging the Mix
Freezing the Mix
Regular Vanilla Ice Cream
Low Calorie Vanilla Ice Cream
Milk Substitute Vanilla Ice Cream
Hints for Making Good Ice Cream

23. ICE CREAM FORMULATIONS
Ice Cream Mix General Compositon
Formulation Considerations
Economy Brands
Standard Brands
Premium Brands
Super-premium Brands
Suggested Mixes

24. AUTOMATIC ICE CREAM BAKING MACHINE
AGC-SERIES
Features
AGC Series
Features
Gas Burners
Scraping Device
Cone Ejector
Stacking Device
Output Details
Baking Process

25. NEW PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY -NEW PREMIUM
3D ICE CREAM PRODUCTS
Enhanced Market Opportunities
Low Capital & Flexibility
26. SAMPLE ICE CREAM CONE DRAWING 331
Design for Cone Diameter 30-40 mm
Design for Cone Diameter 40-50 mm
Design for Cone Diameter 50-56 mm
Design for Sugar Conges
Design for Cups

27. MOLDED CONES & CUPS
Process & Machines

28. ICE CREAM CONE MAKING
Product & Its Application
Market
Raw Material Requirements
Manufacturing Process
Wafer Cone Machine
Technical Parameter
Wafer Cone/Cup Pictures for Reference, Other Size & Shape
can be Customized

29. SUCCESS STORY OF NATURAL ICE CREAM
About Natural Ice Cream
Four Ps of Naturals ice cream
Product
Price
Place
Promotion
Success and the Future

30. SPECIFICATIONS OF ICE CREAM PLANT
1. Pasteurising: 200 Ltr
2. Milk Pump with Filter
3. Homogeniser
4. Ice Cream Mix Phe
5. Cooling Tower
6. Ageing Vat
7. Flavour Tank
8. Continuous Freezer
9. Fruit Feeder
10. S.S. Piping for Ice Cream Mix Plant
11. Skid For Ice Cream Mix Plant
12. Control Panel
13. Hardner Tunnel Model
Equipments and Machinery for Ice Cream Plant
(200 LPH)
Technical Specification

31. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

32. SAMPLE PLANT LAYOUT

33. PHOTOGRAPHS OF MACHINERY WITH SUPPLIER’S CONTACT DETAILS



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