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The Complete Book on Cold Storage, Cold Chain & Warehouse (with Controlled Atmosphere Storage & Rural Godowns) 4th Edition

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The Complete Book on Cold Storage, Cold Chain & Warehouse (with Controlled Atmosphere Storage & Rural Godowns) 4th Edition

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9788193733943
Code: NI292
Pages: 360
Price: Rs. 1,575.00   US$ 150.00

Published: 2019
Usually ships within 5 days

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India is an agricultural-based economy and is the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. Fruits & vegetables, being perishable in nature require certain techniques of preservation for retaining the quality and extend the self-life of the production. The estimated annual production of fruits and vegetables in the country is about 130 million tonnes. The cold storage & cold chain facilities are the prime infrastructural component for such perishable commodities.
Cold storage is a temperature – controlled supply chain network, with storage and distribution activities carried out in a manner such that the temperature of a product is maintained in a specified range, needed to keep it fresh and edible for a much longer period than in normal ambient conditions. A cold chain can be managed by a quality management system generally called as warehouse management. India’s warehousing requirement is expected to grow at an annual average rate of 9%. The Indian Government focus on incentivizing the manufacturing sector is the key to growth of warehousing. With the growth of the domestic manufacturing and retail segments, the demand for efficient warehouse management service has improved. Investment in warehouse can provide an opportunity of realizing returns in the range of 12%-20% per annum to investors willing to explore this sector.
The current scenario reveals that there is a tremendous scope for the development of cold chain facilities. The cold chain industry is recognized as a sunrise sector in India and is expected to offer significant opportunities in the near future. Developing an integrated supply chain, including cold chain can save up to 300 billion annually and at the same time reduce the wastage of perishable horticulture produce.
This handbook is designed to provide a thorough understanding and analysis of the cold chain industry and warehouse management. Also it contains addresses of plant & machinery suppliers with their photographs.
The major content of the book are controlled atmosphere storage, types of cold storage, thermal insulation & refrigeration system, refrigeration, food storage guidelines for consumers, bananas cold storage, cold storage plant- automation, absorption refrigerator, cold chain, growth of cold storage industry, cold chain and refrigeration, shipping containers, cold chain monitor, warehouse, nabard warehousing scheme, rural godowns, solar powered cold storage, addresses of plant and machinery suppliers, sample plant layouts and photographs of machinery with suppliers contact details.
It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, food technologists, those studying and researching in this important area.

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History of Cold Storage
Efficient Cold Storage Management
Clean and Calibrate
Know Your Hot and Cold Spots
Use Humidifiers
Avoid Air Pollution
Rotate Your Product
Inspect the Quality of Your Product on Arrival
Keep Score
Selection of Location for the Cold Storage
Cold Storage Chain
Emergence of Cold Chain Logistics
Providing Temperature Controlled Environments
Refrigerated Containers

Importance of Controlled Atmosphere
Fruits and Vegetables Storage under CA
Indoor Storage
Outdoor Storage
Harvesting Apples at Optimum Maturity
Guidelines for Placing Apples into CA Storage
Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Interactions on Quality of Controlled Atmosphere-stored Apples
The Use of Cooling and Cold Storage to Stabilize and Preserve Fresh Stone Fruits
Ethylene Concentrations in Controlled Atmosphere Storage
Sealing Wails and Ceilings
Wall to Floor Joints
CA Doors
Observation Window

Refrigerated Rail Cars
Planning a Cold Storage
Cold Store Capacity
Refrigeration Plant Requirements
Power Requirements
Methods of Refrigeration
Capacity Rating
Factors Limiting Storage Life
Cost of Freezing
Care and Cleanliness
Working in Cold Rooms
Vapour Barriers
Types of Cold Stores
Prefabricated Cold Stores
Layout of a Typical Cold Store
The Drying Process of Potatoes
The Curing Process of Potatoes
Increasing the Temperature of the Potatoes After Storage
Electrical Installation
General Specifications for Refrigeration System
Refrigeration Processes
Thermal Insulation & Refrigeration System, Control and Safety Devices
Refrigeration Cycles
Types of Compressors
Piston Compressors
Rotary Compressors
Screw Compressors
Vapour Compression Cycle
Rooms for machines, Electricals etc.
Typical Specifications of Refrigeration System
Vapour Absorption System
Ammonia Refrigeration System
Physical Properties
Chemical Properties
Cold Storage for Fruits and Vegetables
Storage Conditions
Cold Storage B.I.S Specification
Working in Cold Rooms
Examples of Food Processing by Refrigeration and Storage
Meat Products
Fishery Products
Dairy Products
Freezing System
Indirect Contact Systems
Plate Freezers
Freezers for Liquid Foods
Direct-Contact Systems

Dairy Products
Recommended Food Storage Chart

Conditions of Harvesting and Putting into Store Harvesting
Criteria of Ripeness
Qualify Characteristics for Storage and Transport
Method of Storage


a. Transport Handling
b. Installation of Refrigerators and Freezers
c. Maintenance
d. Choice of Refrigeration Equipment
Failures Related to Absorption Refrigerators
a. Leaks
b. Repair of Leaks on Cooling Units
c. Fuel Consumption
Comparison between Vapor Compression and Absorption System
Expansion Valve
Difference Between Refrigeration and Heat Pump System
Water-Lithium Bromide Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System
Special Features of Water-Lithium Bromide Solution

Cold Chain Diagram
Importance of Maintaining the Cold Chain
The Effective Cold Chain
National Centre for Cold-Chain Development
Cold Chain Development in India-Modernization of the Infrastructure of Cold Storage of Perishables
Growth of Cold Storage Industry
Verification and Validation
Components of Cold Chain

Health Facilities in Developing Countries
Domestic (Kitchen) and Bar Refrigerators
Types of Cold Chain Refrigerators
Cold-Chain Maintenance, Repair and Replacement
Maintenance of Equipment
Distribution and Transport
Estimation of Transportation
Cold Chain and Logistics Management
Costs of Cold Chain and Logistics Management
Importance of Cold Chain and Vaccine Logistics Management
Electrical Cold Chain Equipments
Walk-in-Freezers (WIF)
Walk-in-Coolers (WIC)
Deep Freezer
Cold Chain Management
Maintenance of the Vaccine Refrigerator
Cold Box
Cold Boxes: Types and Usage
Ice Manufacture
Applications of Refrigeration in Different Food Products
Frozen Food Properties
Refrigerator Thermometers
Monitoring of the Refrigerator Temperature
Fridge Failure or Disruption of the Cold Chain

Refrigerated Container
Shipping Container Features
Comparison of Passive and Active System
Transport Operations
The Role of the Transport Operator
Distribution Vehicles
Air Circulation
Dispatching Product
Air Flow
The Essential Data Logger

How to Use the Cold-Chain Monitor in Routine Forwarding of Vaccine Shipments
The Vaccine Vial Monitor
Proportion of Regional Vaccines Carrying VVMs Recommendations on Improving Availability and Use of VVMs
Cold Storage Temperature Legislation Why Set - l8°C for Thermal Stabilisation? Vaccine Damage
Heat Damage
Solar Refrigerators
Components of Solar Refrigerator

Uses of Ice
Cold Storage Life of Frozen Fish
Cold Storage for Meat
Chilled Storage
Parameters Considered for the Design
Site Selection
Storage Temperature Rate of Freezing
Relative Humidity
Calculation of Refrigeration
Loads Material Selection
Insulating Material
Meat Supply Cold Chain Management
Cold Chain in Slaughterhouse
Air Chilling
Immersion Chilling
Spray Chilling
Vacuum Chilling

Cold Storage Warehouse Construction Warehouse cum Cold Storage
Central Location Value—Adding Operation Need for Warehousing Types of Warehouses
Advantages Disadvantages Functions
Advantages of Public Warehousing
Disadvantages of Public Warehousing
Advantages of Private Warehousing
Disadvantages of Private Warehousing
Sequence of Warehousing
Decisions Determination of Storage
Capacity Fixation of Storage Charges
Storage Systems
Basic Warehouse Equipment

GOI Approved Nabard Warehousing Scheme
1. Mode of Financial Support
2. Eligible Institutions/Entities
3. Purpose/Activities
4. Priority Segments
5. Rate of Interest, Quantum of Support and Repayment Period
6. Accreditation by WDRA
7. Implementation Period
Department of Storage and Marketing Initiatives
A. Direct Lending to State Owned Entities
B. Accreditation/Registration of Warehouse

Institutional Lending
Eligible Financing Institutions
Term Loan
Pattern of Assistance
Solar PV Powered Cold Storage System
A View of Solar PV Panels Installed
Advantages of Solar PV Powered Cold Storage
Cost-Economics of the Solar PV Powered Cold
Storage System
Requirement of Cooling System
Solar Cold Storage System Schematic
Solar Powered Movable Cold Storage Structure
for Perishables
Solar Photovoltaic System With Power Control
Unit for Cold Storage
Use of Solar Panel & Refrigeration in Cold
Storage Through Alternate Technology
Subsidy available
Off Grid Solar System
On Grid Solar System
Energy efficient Hybrid Solar System for Cold
Storage in Remote Areas
Flow Chart for Power Switching in DC Inverter
Air Conditioning System
PV Air Conditioning in Hybrid Cold Storage with
Net Metering
Flow Chart of an Operation of the DC Inverter
Air Conditioning System



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Sample Chapters

(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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 Controlled Atmosphere Storage

Controlled atmosphere storage is a system for holding produce in an atmosphere that differs substantially from normal air in respect to CO2 and O2 levels. Controlled atmosphere storage refers to the constant monitoring and adjustment of the CO2 and O2 levels within gas tight stores or containers. The gas mixture will constantly change due to metabolic activity of the respiring fruits and vegetables in the store and leakage of gases through doors and walls. The gases are therefore measured periodically and adjusted to the predetermined level by the introduction of fresh air or nitrogen or passing the store atmosphere through a chemical to remove CO2. There are different types of controlled atmosphere storage depending mainly on the method or degree of control of the gases. Some researchers prefer to use the terms “static controlled atmosphere storage” and “flushed controlled atmosphere storage” to define the two most commonly used systems. “Static” is where the product generates the atmosphere and “flushed” is where the atmosphere is supplied from a flowing gas stream, which purges the store continuously. Systems may be designed which utilize flushing initially to reduce the O2 content then either injecting CO2 or allowing it to build up through respiration, and then maintenance of this atmosphere by ventilation and scrubbing.

Importance of Controlled Atmosphere

CA storage has been the subject of an enormous number of biochemical, physiological and technological studies, in spite of which it is still not known precisely why it works. The actual effects that varying the levels of O2 and CO2 in the atmosphere have on crops varies with such factors as:

     a.   The species of crop

     b.   The cultivars of crop

     c.   The concentration of the gases in the store

     d.   The crop temperature

     e.   The state of maturity of the crop at harvest

      f.   The degree of ripeness of the climacteric fruit

     g.   The growing conditions before harvest

     h.   The presence of ethylene in the store

Fruits and Vegetables Storage under CA

This is a procedure for storing fruits and vegetables, particularly apples, under an atmosphere that differs from air. Its aim is to increase the storage life of the foods. The most important dietary component of apples is dietary fibre, which is unlikely to be changed appreciably during CA storage. Significant nutritional changes in other fruits and vegetables would not be expected. For the uniform ripening of some fruits, most notably tomatoes and bananas, brief storage under a ‘ripening gas’ can be used. This can initiate ripening or speed up the process. Fruit produced for market in this way is unlikely to be significantly different in nutrient composition compared with fruit that has matured normally, although it may taste differently. Without CA storage many seasonal fruits would not be available throughout the year.

Many fruits and vegetables have a natural coating of wax, which is removed when these foods are cleaned before appearing on the supermarket shelf. To make them shiny

and attractive and promote their sale, some fruits and vegetables are artificially waxed. The waxes are dispersed in water and coated over the food to provide a thin film of wax, which gives a glossy appearance. Apples coated this way are likely to sell more readily. In addition to this cosmetic effect, the wax coating for a short time slows the loss of moisture, which causes weight loss and wilting. The nutritional advantage of waxing, if any, would be expected to be only very small. At present there is no reason to believe that the use of waxes approved for this purpose is hazardous to health.

The storability of fruits and vegetables is strictly related to their respiration rate, which is an expression of metabolic activity. Aerobic respiration requires O2, and results in CO2 and heat release. More than 95% of the energy released is lost as heat. The temperature decrease, in particular if helped by modification of the atmosphere leads to a reduction in respiration rate, and therefore to an increase in storage life in fruits with climacteric respiration. Selection of the most suitable atmosphere depends on cultivars, stage of maturity, environmental and cultivation parameters. No one atmosphere is best for all produce, specific recommendations and cautions must be determined from each crop over the range of storage temperature and periods.

Indoor Storage

There are many areas in dwellings that naturally provide, or can be adapted to provide, a variety of temperature and moisture conditions for storage. Assess your specific situation; if possible, use a thermometer to monitor temperatures in various areas of your building during the fall and winter to find locations that are convenient and most readily adaptable for food storage. Any spot that is sufficiently and evenly cool (32-60 o F) can be adapted for some type of food storage. The relative humidity of these locations will also affect what can be stored there. Basements are generally the most logical place to adapt.

Older homes are often less well-insulated, and have pantries, back halls, enclosed porches, sheds and bulkheads which are adaptable to storage. Homes heated with wood stoves often have a central area of radiant warmth and peripheral areas that are considerably cooler.

Outdoor Storage

In areas with cold winters, vegetables requiring cool to cold, moist conditions can be stored in any of several types of outdoor storage areas. Earthen storages, from simple mounds to more elaborate root cellars, naturally provide cool, moist, dark and even conditions for a fairly long time. All outdoor storages have the disadvantage of sometimes being inaccessible, as well as being subject to damage by rodents and other vermin. To be successful, any outdoor storage must have thorough drainage Placing fruits and vegetables in storage, either in pits or in basement rooms, before cold weather starts in the fall is a frequent cause of early spoilage. One of the most difficult steps in successful storage is to keep the produce in prime condition from the time of optimum maturity until the night temperature is low enough to cool the storage area. The length of storage and retention of nutrients will be maximized if the produce can be stored under the proper conditions immediately after harvest. The following page contains a few examples of storage areas for fruits and vegetables.

Harvesting Apples at Optimum Maturity

For successful controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, harvest apples when they are physiologically mature but not ripe. Harvest each cultivar at the proper maturity to achieve maximum storage life and marketing season. Apples harvested too early are of poor colour and small size and have little flavour. They may fail to ripen or ripen abnormally, and the overall quality will be poor. Characteristics of immature apples that contribute to inadequate flavour development include high water loss, low sugar content, high acidity, low aroma volatile production and high starch content. Immature apples are also more likely to develop storage disorders such as superficial scald and bitter pit.

Harvesting apples too late can result in a short storage life. Such apples are too soft for long-term CA storage and are more susceptible to mechanical injury and disease infection. Over-mature apples may develop poor eating quality and off-flavours and are more susceptible to watercore and internal breakdown.

For these reasons, determining optimum apple maturity for harvest is essential for maximizing storage life and quality, while minimizing postharvest losses. Numerous methods have been suggested for determining harvest date, but no single test is completely satisfactory, and some are too unpredictable, complicated or expensive.

Days after full bloom for a given cultivar provides an approximate date of harvest maturity. Confirm the date using tests such as internal ethylene concentration (IEC), starch-iodine staining, flesh firmness and soluble solids content (sugars). In general, an IEC of 1 ppm is considered to be the ultimate threshold above which fruit ripening and flesh softening are initiated and progress rapidly.

Complete harvest for long-term storage before 20% of the apples have an IEC greater than 0.2 ppm. Using the starch-iodine test, apples destined for long-term storage should have 100% of the core tissue starch degraded (no stain) with greater than 60% of the flesh tissue still having starch present (stain). It is important to note that not all apples mature and ripen in the same manner each year. Often there will be a need to compromise between correct maturity and the required firmness and sugar levels for market.

Guidelines for Placing Apples into CA Storage

Segregate apples into lots at harvest by their storage potential. The following types of apples are not suitable for long-term storage because of their potential for internal breakdown (or developing bitter pit):

       •   large fruit from lightly cropped tree

       •   fruit from excessively vigorous trees

       •   fruit from young trees just coming into bearing

       •   fruit from heavily shaded interior parts of trees

       •   early-harvested fruit high in starch

       •   fruit with a low number of seeds

After harvest, cool the apples as rapidly as possible. Fruit off the tree mature much faster; with warmer temperatures, fruit begin to ripen sooner. Try to get the harvest from each day into the cooler by nightfall without straining the capacity of your cooling system to the detriment of apples already pre-cooled and in storage.

When using CA storage, the quicker the apples are cooled and the desired atmosphere is achieved, the longer the apples will store and be of good quality upon removal. The longer it takes to adjust the oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, the less effective the length of storage will be. The objective should be to cool the apples and achieve the desired atmosphere within 5 days of initial harvest.

CA storage will not improve fruit quality - place only the best fruit in CA storage. If over- or under-mature or poor-quality apples are put into CA, the result will be poor-quality apples upon removal. Successful CA storage begins with harvesting apples at the proper maturity, followed by rapid cooling and establishment of the CA, then proper maintenance of the desired temperature and atmosphere. In general, the standard CA recommendations range between 2.5%-3% O2 and 2.5%-4.5% CO2 at 0°C-3°C. Due to recent research using new storage technologies and strategies, cultivar-specific CA recommendations have been reviewed.

A major problem with long term storage of apples is the development of superficial scald on the fruit.  This has been controlled by ethoxyquin or DPA and more recently by SmartFresh. SmartFresh has radically changed fruit storage, but it is not currently certified by the organic movement and consumers are becoming increasingly concerned about chemicals, such as DPA, on fruit, and are seeking a ‘no chemicals’ approach to production and distribution. In many developed markets, such as the United Kingdom and Europe, supermarkets are responding to this by dictating residue levels well below those officially allowable. As a result, apples in some of these markets are not allowed to be treated with DPA or to be waxed and there is a preference for fruit certified as organic. Even before the commercialisation of Smart Fresh in Europe and North America in the 1990s, there was strong consumer demand for DPA-free fruit.

Food Storage Guidelines for Consumers

Provide safe and nutritious food for you and your family by purchasing food within the food manufacturer’s freshness dates. Meat, fish, poultry, dairy, and fresh bakery products are dated with a “sell by date” to indicate how long the food can be displayed for sale. Also, the “sell by date” allows a reasonable amount of time after the purchase in which the product can be used. Consumers should always purchase food before the “sell by date” expires. Cereals, snack foods, frozen entrees, and dry packaged foods may be marked with a “best if used by date.” The products are not at their best quality after this date, but can still be used safely for a short period of time thereafter. Other foods, such as unbaked breads, are marked with an “expiration” or “use by date,” which means the product should not be consumed after that date. Do not purchase any food not used by that date. The freshness date is located on the food package and serves as an indicator of product quality.

Recommended Storage for Various Foods Breads, Cereals, Flour and Rice Bread should be stored in the original package at room temperature and used within 5 to 7 days. However, bread stored in the refrigerator will have a longer shelf-life due to delayed mold growth and may be firmer. Expect a 2- to 3-month shelf-life of bread stored in the freezer. Refrigerate cream style bakery goods containing eggs, cream cheese, whipped cream and/or custards no longer than 3 days. Cereals may be stored at room temperature in tightly closed containers to keep out moisture and insects. Whole wheat flour may be stored in the refrigerator or freezer to retard rancidity of the natural oils. Store raw white rice in tightly closed containers at room temperature and use within one year. Brown and wild rice stored at room temperature will have a shorter shelf-life (6 months) due to the oil becoming rancid. Shelf-life of raw white and brown rice may be extended by refrigeration. Cooked rice may be stored in the refrigerator for 6 to 7 days or in the freezer for 6 months.

Dairy Products

The shelf-life of fluid milk stored in the refrigerator (

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