Rice Husk, Rice Hull, Rice Husk Ash (Agricultural waste) based Projects

India has a major agribusiness sector which has achieved remarkable successes over the last three and a half decades. Agricultural waste or residue is made up of organic compounds from organic sources such as rice straw, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sugar cane bagasse, coconut shell, and others. Rice husk from paddy (Oryza sativa) is one example of alternative material that has a great potential. Rice husk a major by-product of the rice milling industry, is one of the most commonly available lignocellulosic materials that can be converted to different types of fuels and chemical feedstocks through a variety of thermochemical conversion processes. Rice husk is an agricultural residue abundantly available in rice producing countries.The husk surrounds the paddy grain. During milling of paddy about 78 % of weight is received as rice, broken rice and bran. Rest 22 % of the weight of paddy is received as husk. This husk is used as fuel in the rice mills to generate steam for the parboiling process. This husk contains about 75 % organic volatile matter and the balance 25 % of the weight of this husk is converted into ash during the firing process, is known as rice husk ash.  This RHA in turn contains around 85 % - 90 % amorphous silica.The moisture content ranged from 8·68 to 10·44%, and the bulk density ranged from 86 to 114 kg/ m3.  

Rice husk is unusually high in ash, which is 92 to 95% silica, highly porous and lightweight, with a very high external surface area. Its absorbent and insulating properties are useful to many industrial applications, such as acting as a strengthening agent in building materials. Rice husks are processed into rectangular shaped particle boards.

Construction industry is one of the fastest growing sectors in India. Rapid construction activity and growing demand of houses has lead to the short fall of traditional building materials. Bricks, Cement, sand, and wood are now becoming scares materials. Demand of good quality of building materials to replace the traditional materials and the need for cost effective and durable materials for the low cost housing has necessitated the researchers to develop variety of new and innovative building materials. Construction materials of special requirements for the houses in different geographical region to overcome the risk of natural hazard and for protection from sever climatic conditions has also emphasised the need for development of lightweight, insulating, cost effective, durable and environment friendly building materials. Rice hulls can be put to use as building material, fertilizer, insulation material or fuel. Rice hulls uses include aggregates and fillers for concrete and board production, economical substitute for microsilica, absorbents for oils and chemicals, soil ameliorants, as a source of silicon, as insulation powder in steel mills so as to name a few.

India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion and / or by gasification. About 20 million tones of RHA are produced annually. This RHA is a great environment threat causing damage to the land and the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being thought of for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA.

The annual rice husk produce in India amounts is generally approximately 120 million tons. Rice husk is generally not recommended as cattle feed since its cellulose and other sugar contents are low. Furfural and rice bran oil are extracted from rice husk. Industries use rice husk as fuel in boilers and for power generation. Among the different types of biomass used for gasification, rice husk has a high ash content varying from 18 – 20 %. Silica is the major constituent of rice husk ash and the following tables gives typical composition of rice husk and rice husk ash. With such a large ash content and silica content in the ash it becomes economical to extract silica from the ash, which has wide market and also takes care of ash disposal.

A number of rice-producing countries, (e.g. Thailand), are currently conducting research on industrial uses of rice hulls.

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Paper from Waste Paper, Bamboo Chips, Rice Husk & Wheat Husk

Paper being one of the basic needs of life, it occupies an important position in the world. Paper made from rice and wheat husk is widely used for manufacture of corrugated board. It is used for packing and wrapping and in the manufacture of gummed paper tap. It is also used in wrapping of magazines and journals. There are many end-uses for paper like paper and paper board, newsprint and chemical pulp (used in rayon etc). Bamboo is widely used for paper manufacturing, as it is similar to straw in micro social characteristics and conditions for digestion. Waste paper collected from office buildings, large retail outlets, apartment buildings is pulped and pulverized in water. About 80 % of available waste paper pulp is used in the manufacture of paper boards. Small-scale units depend entirely on waste paper as raw material. It has very good potential for an entrepreneur.
Plant capacity: 150 MT /DayPlant & machinery: Rs. 340 Lakhs
Working capital: Rs. 1600 LakhsT.C.I: Rs. 2499 Lakhs
Return: 81.74%Break even: 35.60%
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Activated Carbon From Rice Husk, Saw Dust & Coconut Shell

Carbon is probably the most widely distributed element in nature. Activated carbon from rice husk has been developed & finding wider uses. There is considerable scope in India for the manufacture of activated carbon from rice husk. The major use put by activated carbon is solution purification, such as the clean up of cane, beet and corn sugar solution and for the removal of taste and odours from water suppliers, vegetable and animal fats and oils, alcoholic beverages, chemicals and pharmaceutical. The recovery of streptomycin represents a typical application of the continuous treatment of liquids. The vapour adsorbent type of activated carbon was first used in military and industrial gas masks. Its use in air conditioning systems to control odours and industrial recovery and control of vapours has been very significant of activated carbon has boost up its market potential existing at present & has much under scope in future. This is very good project.
Plant capacity: 2 Ton/DayPlant & machinery: 41 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 183 Lakhs
Return: 39.00%Break even: 43.00%
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Precipitated Silica from Rice Husk Ash

Precipitated silica (also called particulate silica) is compound of aggregates of ultimate particles of colloidal size that have not become linked in massive gel network during the preparation process. This is used as filler for paper, rubber as a carrier, diluents for agricultural chemicals, as an anti caking agent to control viscosity and thickness, as molecular sieves. Due to multi end uses in different industries, demand of precipitated silica is good. Any new entrepreneur venture into this field will be successful.
Plant capacity: 2 Ton/DayPlant & machinery: 38 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 174 Lakhs
Return: 44.00%Break even: 41.00%
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Cement From Rice Husk

Rice husk gives a good quality of pozzolanio ash containing silica, which is considered a good substitute for cement. It is prepared by first burning husk to form ash and then mixing it with lime and grinding it to a very fine powder. Cement is a very important building material, but today it is very much short in supply. With the increase in constructional activities its demand will also increase. The export demand is estimated to be 3 percent of the total production. The new entrepreneur can enter in this project.
Plant capacity: 50 MT/day Plant & machinery: Rs. 98 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Rs. 203 Lakhs
Return: 28.00%Break even: 54.00%
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STRAW BOARD AND MILL BOARD FROM RICE HUSK AND BAGASSE

Mill and straw boards are thicker, heavier and less flexible than the convention paper. The thickness of board is the thickness of a single sheet board measured under specified conditions. It is usually expressed in micrometers. Mill/straw board, grey board and other special varieties of boards are used for various packing processes for packing and protecting innumerable consumer and industrial goods. For above and many other reasons, the demand for straw board and mill board is increasing every day with increasing population of the world. It is consumed for various purposes. Besides this huge internal demand, there is a great export potential also. It will be profitable for the new entrants to invest in this project.
Plant capacity: 5 MT/dayPlant & machinery: Rs. 39 lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Rs.169 lakhs
Return: 45.00%Break even: 38.00%
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Precipitated Silica from Rice Husk

Rice husk is an agricultural residue easily available in rice producing countries. India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boiler for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustions or by gasification. The rice husk contains about 75% organic volatile matter & balance of 25% is converted into ash during the firing process is known as rice husk ash (RHA). Precipitated silica (also called particulated silica) is composed of aggregates of ultimate linked in massive gel network during the preparation process. The ash produced after the husk has been burned is high in silica. R.H.A. can be used in variety of application like “Green concrete, insulator, insecticides and bio fertilizer etc. Precipitated silica is used as filler for paper and rubber as a carrier and diluents for agricultural chemicals, as an ant caking agent, to control viscosity thickness and as a cleansing agent in tooth paste and in cosmetics. The distinguish feature of the growth of precipitated silica industry in India is that it has classifiably flourished in small scale sector. Readily available raw materials, low capital investment high rate of return offer a distinct advantage to new entrepreneurs to venture into this project.
Plant capacity: 600 Ton/AnnumPlant & machinery: 53 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 276 Lakhs
Return: 42.00%Break even: 37.00%
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EXTRACTION OF ULTRA PURE SILICON FROM RICE HUSK

Rice milling industry generates a lot of rice husk during milling of paddy which comes from the fields. This rice husk is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing of paddy. Rice husk ash (RHA) is about 25% by weight of rice husk when burnt in boilers. This husk is used as fuel in the rice mills to generate steam for the parboiling process. This RHA in turn contain around 85% to 90% amorphous silica. Its a carbon neutral green product. RHA is a good super-pozzolan. This super pozzolan can be used in a big way to make special concrete mixes. There is a growing demand for fine amorphous silica in the production of special cement and concrete mixes, high performance concrete, high strength for use in bridges, marine environments, nuclear power plants etc. Any new entrepreneur can well venture in to this field.
Plant capacity: 90000 KGS/AnnumPlant & machinery: 246 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 557 Lakhs
Return: 39.00%Break even: 47.00%
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SODIUM SILICATE FROM RICE HUSK

Sodium Silicate is a colourless compound of oxides of sodium and silica. Sodium silicate is the generic name for a series of compounds derived from soluble sodium silicate glasses. They are water solutions of sodium oxide and silicon dioxide combined in various ratios. These are sold as 20% to 50% aqueous solutions called water glass. Rice husk is an alternative source for silica. Rice husk a major by-product of the rice milling industry, is one of the most commonly available lignocellulosic materials that can be converted to different types of fuels and chemical feedstock through a variety of thermo chemical conversion processes. Rice husk is an agricultural residue abundantly available in rice producing countries. The husk surrounds the paddy grain. Sodium silicate is an excellent adhesive for sealing fiberboard boxes because it sets quickly and firmly holds the flaps together. Sodium silicate solutions of widely varying ratios are used for making many kinds of cement, including types for acid-proof construction, refractory used, and binding thermal insulating materials. There are a number of outstanding advantages of sodium silicates as binders in the cement mixtures. These include resistance of the set cements to acid, to high temperature, and to water. The annual rice husk produce in India amounts is generally approximately 120 million tons. India is a major rice producing country and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion and/or by gasification. The different types of biomass used for gasification, rice husk has a high ash content varying from 18-20%. The demand of sodium silicate is increasing day by day. So, there is a good scope of enter into this field.
Plant capacity: 4500 MT/AnnumPlant & machinery: 84 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 220 Lakhs
Return: 40.00%Break even: 47.00%
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PARTICLE BOARD FROM RICE HUSK

Rice hulls (or rice husks) are the hard protecting coverings of grains of rice. Construction industry is one of the fastest growing sectors in India. Rapid construction activity and growing demand of houses has lead to the short fall of traditional building materials. Bricks, Cement, sand, and wood are now becoming scares materials. Wood or wood based composite boards with lightweight & high strength are still a preferred option for construction due to their reasonable costs. The growing shortage of wood has led to the development of suitable alternative materials. Rice husk particle board is one such material which is being considered as a potential substitute for wood & wood based boards. Agricultural waste or residue is made up of organic compounds from organic sources such as rice straw, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sugar cane bagasse, coconut shell, and others. Rice husk from paddy (Oryza sativa) is one example of alternative material that can be potentially used for making particle board. Rice husk is unusually high in ash, which is 92 to 95% silica, highly porous and lightweight, with a very high external surface area. Its absorbent and insulating properties are useful to many industrial applications, such as acting as a strengthening agent in building materials. Rice husks are processed into rectangular shaped particle boards. Most particle boards produced is in the intermediate density range from 0.40 to 0.80 g/cm3, low density boards in the range from 025 to 0.40 g/cm3 are insulating type whereas high density boards in the range from 0.80 to 1.20 g/cm3 are called hard board type. Industry size estimated at Rs. 1,000 Crores, about 0.49 mln. m3 90 % Pre laminated, 10% plain 60% Cheaper than Plywood Industry growing at around 20 %, 50% imported, Dominated by organized sector, Highly profitable from agro based raw materials. The Indian market for particleboard and plywood is estimated in value terms, at over Rs 17 billion. Of the total market, particleboard accounts for over 30% of the market with the rest over 70% accounted by plywood segments. Particle boards are slowly gaining acceptance as a substitute for other board materials such as plywood and block boards and even for sawn timber whenever it is competitive in price. This trend is accepted to strengthen further in the coming years as the availability of plywood, blackboards and timber is declining and their prices are showing an upward trend. As the pressure on the limited forest resources increases there would be a greater need to manufacture reconstituted wood boards such as particle boards which is normally manufactured from forest management wastes whereas sawn timber and plywood and block boards require prime quality logs. As in many emerging markets, India is experiencing a rapid phase of urbanization with a change in lifestyles, a growing demand for engineered wood and agro based panel products, and a high infrastructure, industry sources expect positive growth for wood and agro based products such as plywood, particleboard, medium density fiberboard, oriented-strand board and laminated veneer lumber in near future. So, there is a good scope of the product in the near future.
Plant capacity: 1500000 Pcs. /Annum, Size of Board 6Plant & machinery: 110 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 733 Lakhs
Return: 47.00%Break even: 32.00%
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Rice Bran Based Solvent Extraction Plant

Rice has been and continues to be the largest source of human nutrition. Rice bran is a by-product of the rice milling process. Rice bran is the most important source of edible oil among the unconventional sources. Rice bran is the brown coating around the white starchy rice kernel, which is obtained by dehusking paddy and polishing the rice. While white rice holds little nutritional value, the bran that is removed contains 65 percent of the rice kernel’s nutrients and boasts a bounty of healthful benefits. The thin brown layer that is milled off in the processing of white rice, rice bran is just as effective as the other bran’s in fighting high cholesterol and providing high-grade fiber. India produces about 80 million tonnes of paddy annually. This can yield about 5 million tonnes of rice bran and to the extent of 8 lakhs tonnes of rice bran oil. Production of rice bran oil is currently estimated at about 2 lakhs tonnes and hardly 10-15 per cent of it is of edible grade, although the potential availability is reckoned at about 8 lakhs tonnes. The wide gap between the actual production and the potential availability of rice bran oil is primarily due to the fact that at present around 70 per cent of the paddy produced in the country is processed through huller mills while only 30 percent is processed by modern sheller mills. It has been estimated that huller mills number about 80,000 while there are only 28,000 modern sheller mills. Rice bran oil is natural oil that is created using the hull or bran of the rice grain. One of the advantages of using rice bran oil in cooking is that the oil has a high smoking point. This means the oil is ideal for frying foods without running the risk of overheating and burning the food before the meat or coated vegetables are cooked all the way through. The creation of rice bran oil involves the pressing of the hull or bran of the rice grain. By pressing on the hull, small amounts of oil can be extracted and collected. The oil released from the rice bran contains a hefty amount of Vitamin E, gamma oryzanol and the essential fatty acids that lend a great deal of taste to the oil. The presence of a number of antioxidants also help to make rice bran oil a healthier alternative for use in salad dressings and as an ingredient in baked goods. Rice Bran Oil alone has the potentiality of wiping out a large part of the deficit oil in the country. India is the biggest producer of rice in the world, next to China. However only a very small proportion of the rice bran is processed and large quantity of oil in rice bran is wasted. According to the solvent Extractor's Association of India, the total production of oil from indigenous sources amounted to 76.2 lakhs tonnes in oil year 2003-2004 and in the current oil year this is expected to rise to around 80.6 lakhs tonnes. The government estimated that the total shortfall in supply was of the order of about 6 lakhs to 7 lakhs tonnes. However, it imported about 11 lakhs tonnes last year, which is expected to go up to about 15 lakhs tonnes in the current year. The government is importing just the double of its own stated shortfall. There is an ample of scope and space for new entrepreneurs to venture into this field. Few Indian Major Players are as under: A G Fats Ltd. Agrawal Oil Extractions Ltd. Balaji Agro Oils Ltd. Boppana Oils Ltd. Cethar Foodoil Ltd. Chaitanya Oils Ltd. Goa Agro Oil Ltd. Godavari Edible Bran Oil Ltd. J R Foods Ltd. J S P Oils & Fats Ltd. K G N Agro Internationals Ltd. Kedia Overseas Ltd. Kirti Dal Mills Ltd. Lakshmi Energy & Foods Ltd. Madras Vanaspati Ltd. Midland Industries Ltd. Modi Naturals Ltd. Morinda Overseas Inds. Ltd. Organic Chemoils Ltd. Patliputra Industries Ltd. Prakash Solvent Extractions Ltd. Raghunath Cotton & Oil Products Ltd. Rasoi Ltd. Ravindra Solvent Oils Ltd. Rice Oil & Foods Ltd. Rom Industries Ltd. S K M Animal Feeds & Foods (India) Ltd. Sambandam Solvent Extraction Ltd. Satyakala Agro Oil Products Ltd. Shanti Kunj Solvent Ltd. Shree Madhav Edible Products Ltd. Shree Shakthi Agro Oils Ltd. Siddaganga Oil Extractions Pvt. Ltd. Sidh Industries Ltd. Sonitpur Solvex Ltd. Sree Tulasi Solvent Extractions Ltd. Sri Murugarajendra Oil Industry Ltd. Srihitha Refineries Ltd. Thapar Agro Mills Ltd. Unique Organics Ltd. Vijay Agro Products Pvt. Ltd.
Plant capacity: 8100 MT/AnnumPlant & machinery: 486 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 804 Lakhs
Return: 42.00%Break even: 54.00%
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