Identified Project Opportunities : Jammu & Kashmir
Agriculture & Horticulture: Project Opportunities in Jammu & Kashmir
Agriculture Sector of Indian Economy is one of the most significant part of India. Agriculture is the only means of living for almost two-thirds of the employed class in India. About 65% of Indian population depends directly on agriculture and it accounts for around 22% of GDP. Agriculture derives its importance from the fact that it has vital supply and demand links with the manufacturing sector. The agriculture sector of India has occupied almost 43 percent of India's geographical area. Agriculture is still the only largest contributor to India's GDP even after a decline in the same in the agriculture share of India
Paddy, wheat and maize are the major crops of Jammu & Kashmir. Barley, bajra and jowar are cultivated in few parts. Gram is grown in Ladakh. The horticulture industry in Kashmir has become the safeguard of rural economy in the State, providing job facilities to the thousands of people directly and indirectly. The major horticulture items are apple, pear, cherry, walnut, almond, peaches, saffron, apricot, strawberry and plum. About 80 per cent population of the State depends on agriculture. The area under orchards is 242 lakh hectares. The State produces fruit worth Rs 2,000 crore annually including export of walnuts worth Rs. 120 crore. Jammu and Kashmir State has been declared as Agri Export Zone for apple and walnuts. Market Intervention Scheme has also been launched for improving quality fruit for export by ensuing proper grading.
The State is suitable for growing variety of flowers since it has perfect agro-climatic conditions. The floriculture industry in the State offers a good source of supply to the domestic and international market. There is potential for this activity to be propagated on a commercial basis.
In India, agricultural trade policy is a part of a larger food and agriculture policy regime that seeks to maintain food self-sufficiency while providing income support to the agricultural sector and poor consumers. The Government of India (GOI) uses a variety of policy instruments in attempting to achieve these goals, including:
• Domestic subsidies to inputs, outputs, transportation, storage, and consumption to reduce producer costs and consumer prices
• Border measures such as subsidies, tariffs, quotas, and non-tariff measures to protect domestic producers from import competition, manage domestic price levels, and guarantee domestic supply.
Handicraft: Project Opportunities in Jammu & Kashmir
India is one of the important suppliers of handicrafts to the world market. The Indian handicrafts industry is highly labour intensive cottage based industry and decentralized, being spread all over the country in rural and urban areas. Paintings, furniture, sculptures, artificial jewellery, animal figures, figurines of deities and idols, baskets, and many more items have been complimented as the pride of India. The Handicrafts Sector plays a significant & important role in the country’s economy.
Handicraft is the traditional industry of the State and has been of crucial importance given its large employment and export potential. Some of the items of industry are papier-mache, woodcarving, carpets, shawl making, embroidery etc. The handicrafts industry, particularly the carpet industry, has been a source of substantial foreign exchange. It provides employment to about 3.40 lakh artisans. The number of industrial units has also gone up. Jammu has Urban Haats, while a similar Haat is being commissioned in Srinagar. An Export Promotion Industrial Park has been established at Kartholi, Jammu. A similar Park is being set up at Ompora, Budgam. A pashmina dehairing project assisted by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is coming up in the Leh industrial estate of the State.
During the Xth Plan the Government of India has implemented seven generic schemes in the central sector for holistic growth and development of handicrafts sector in the country. The Sub-Group on handicrafts recommended six generic schemes for development of handicrafts in the country to be implemented during the 11th five year plan. The schemes recommended for implementation during 11th five year plan are as under:
Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hastshilp Vikas Yojana: This scheme aims to promote Indian handicrafts by developing artisans’ clusters into professionally managed and self-reliant community enterprise on the principles of effective member participation and mutual cooperation. The thrust of the scheme is on a project based, need based integrated approach for sustainable development of handicrafts through participation of crafts persons.
Livestock: Project Opportunities in Jammu & Kashmir
Livestock sector plays a critical role in the welfare of India's rural population. It contributes nine percent to Gross Domestic Product and employs eight percent of the labour force. 70% of livestock market in India is owned by 67% of small, marginal farmers and by the landless. 60% of livestock farming labor is provided by women and more than 90% of work related to care of animals is rendered by womenfolk of the family. Indian Livestock is reared in close human proximity where they form component of the life system of the people. Cows, buffaloes, bullocks, mule and donkeys are not just utility animals, but also companions at work for the toiling poor who rear them alongside their own dwelling. India has 53% of world Buffalo population and 15% of world Cattle population. In terms of sheep population, India ranks fifth after Australia, China, Iran and New Zealand.
In Jammu and Kashmir, animal husbandry plays a significant role as 0.13 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) of the state is contributed by this sector. The state has a precious wealth of livestock in form of cattle-buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry, etc. The cattle and poultry amongst all the livestock are considered the most important tool for the development of the rural economy. The production of pashmina shawls and other animal products like carpets, shawls and blankets of Kashmir earn handsome foreign exchange for the nation. Therefore livestock industry in the state has vast scope for development rendering quick economic returns.
The Indian government has collaboration and policies to provide guidance for a more holistic planning, implementation and monitoring of animal husbandry projects. Following plans have also been made:
• Also, the government has planned to assure a sound Natural Resource Management (NRM) Sphere co-ordination and implementation at country level for SDC.
• Create / enhance synergy between the activities of the Livestock production and Dairying (LPD) and Sustainable Land Use (SLU) sectors
• Enlarge the scope for new and innovative interventions and for support to technical development and technology transfer.
• Promote and support validation, documentation and dissemination of experiences in order to contribute to the process of knowledge management in SDC and Inter cooperation (IC) and to strengthen inputs for policy and strategic dialogue with partners and actors in the NRM Sphere
Tourism: Project Opportunities in Jammu & Kashmir
Tourism in India is the largest service industry, with a contribution of 6.23% to the national GDP and 8.78% of the total employment in India. The tourism industry in India is substantial and vibrant, and the country is fast becoming a major global destination. India’s travel and tourism industry is one of them most profitable industries in the country, and also credited with contributing a substantial amount of foreign exchange. Indian Tourism offers a potpourri of different cultures, traditions, festivals, and places of interest.
Jammu and Kashmir is known as crown of India, adheres varieties of cultural, religious spots, adventure and sightseeing activities. It is famous for its towering snow clad mountains, bubbling streams, transparent and sparkling lakes, flower meadows, colourful orchards and rare fauna. All such features of Jammu and Kashmir have always attracted numerous tourists from all over the world. Tourism has emerged as an important and one of the major contributors to the State's economy. There are various places of tourist attraction in the State which are being visited by both foreign and domestic tourists. Kashmir Valley is described as the paradise on earth. Chashmashahi springs, Shalimar Bagh, Dal Lake, Dachigam, Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Sonamarg and Amarnath shrine in the Valley, Vaishnodevi shrine and Patnitop near Jammu and Buddhist monasteries in Ladakh are important tourist destinations. Ladakh festival in September and Sindhu Darshan in June are popular events. However, efforts are being made to support houseboat owners and develop village tourism in Jammu and Kashmir.
In order to develop tourism in India in a systematic manner, position it as a major engine of economic growth and to harness its direct and multiplier effects for employment and poverty eradication in an environmentally sustainable manner, the National Tourism Policy was formulated in the year 2002. Broadly, the Policy attempts to:-
• Position tourism as a major engine of economic growth;
• Harness the direct and multiplier effects of tourism for employment generation, economic development and providing impetus to rural tourism;
• Focus on domestic tourism as a major driver of tourism growth.
• Position India as a global brand to take advantage of the burgeoning global travel trade and the vast untapped potential of India as a destination;
• Acknowledges the critical role of private sector with government working as a pro-active facilitator and catalyst;
• Create and develop integrated tourism circuits based on India’s unique civilization, heritage, and culture in partnership with States, private sector and other agencies; and ensure that the tourist to India gets physically invigorated, mentally rejuvenated, culturally enriched, spiritually elevated and feel India from within.
Sericulture: Project Opportunities in Jammu & Kashmir
Sericulture, the technique of silk production, is an agro-industry, playing an eminent role in the rural economy of India. Silk-fibre is a protein produced from the silk-glands of silkworms. Of the total production of 2,969 tonnes of silk in India, as much as 2,445 tonnes is produced by the mulberry silkworms, Bombyx mori. India is the second largest producer of raw silk after China and the biggest consumer of raw silk and silk fabrics. An analysis of trends in international silk production suggests that sericulture has better prospects for growth in the developing countries rather than in the advanced countries.
Kashmir has been famous for its silk production since ancient past. Rajtrangni of Kalhana, Mahabharata and Ramayana establish that the sericulture was being practised in Kashmir from times immemorial. Jammu and Kashmir produces the best quality Bivoltine Mulberry silk in the country due to its longer length better strength and shine mainly because of conducive climatic conditions. However out of total production of cocoons every year only 20-25% is being consumed within the State and the rest is exported. The estimated production of raw silk yarn is 92000 kg annually. As against this the State is importing spun silk as an item of raw material for different manufactures without clicking our conscience that the better silk could have been exported to others besides catering to the needs of the home industry.
There are several centrally sponsored schemes for promotion and development of sericulture sector, through which Government of India has been undertaking different activities like:
• creation of sericulture related infrastructure;
• development of nurseries and farms;
• expanding plantation areas;
• providing technical know-how to the rearers in production and marketing of cocoons;
• skill up-gradation and training programme, etc.
Fisheries: Project Opportunities in Jammu & Kashmir
Fisheries sector occupies a very important place in socio-economic development in India. It has been recognized as a powerful income and employment generatoras it stimulates growth of a number of subsidiary industries and is a source of cheap and nutritious besides being a foreign exchange earner.
The State of J&K has a unique topography which divides the State in to 3 distinct agro climatic zones viz. the tropical Jammu Division, the temperate Kashmir Valley and the cold arid zone of Ladakh. The State is bestowed with the natural water resources spread over an area of about 0.40 lacs hectares existing in the shape of cold water torrential streams, Lakes, Rivers, Sars, Springs, Reservoirs besides about 250 high altitude Lakes. While the Jammu Division offers potential for development of Warm Water Fisheries, certain areas in the Districts of Kathua, Udhampur, Doda, Rajouri and Poonch also offer potential for the development of Cold water Fisheries and Mahaseer Fisheries. The Kashmir Valley including Ladakh region offers great potential for development of Cold Water Fisheries and the indigenous Icthyofauna.
During the 10th Five Year Plan, emphasis was laid on the strengthening of the infrastructure existing in the shape of Fish Farms, Hatcheries, and other allied infrastructure. The Department has achieved break-through in cold water Fisheries and Food Fisheries. Fish Farming has been successfully introduced in the private sector under the Hon’ble Prime Minister’s Package and in this direction 454 units have been set up to provide employment avenues to the educated unemployed rural youth. During the Annual Plan 2009-10, the department has identified major thrust areas for overall development of fisheries in the State.
i. The existing infrastructure will be further strengthened. Under this programme, emphasis will be laid to increase the hatching and rearing capacity of existing Fish Farms and Trout Hatcheries.
ii. Development of Recreational Fisheries by way of setting up of an Aquarium at Srinagar and completion of phase 2nd of Aquarium cum Awareness centre at Bagh-i-Bahu Jammu.
iii. Extensive survey of areas especially in newly created districts will be conducted for establishment of new fish farming units of both Carp and Trout.
iv. Sport Fisheries will be further strengthened and new trout streams will be established in the State particularly in Jammu division to increase the scope of trout angling in the State.
v. Propagation of fish culture in private sector
vi. Development of endemic fish fauna/hill stream fisheries.
vii. To provide better marketing facilities for the fishermen.
Waste management and recycling: Project Opportunities in Jammu & Kashmir
Rapid industrialization last few decades have led to the depletion of pollution of precious natural resources in India depletes and pollutes resources continuously. Further the rapid industrial developments have, also, led to the generation of huge quantities of hazardous wastes, which have further aggravated the environmental problems in the country by depleting and polluting natural resources. Therefore, rational and sustainable utilization of natural resources and its protection from toxic releases is vital for sustainable socio-economic development.
SMC has introduced dumpers replacing open collection sites in many areas but the dumpers are not colour-coded and no segregation of waste is carried out at source. Total waste generated is about 375 MT/day (within SMC limits). House-to-House collection of municipal solid waste is being undertaken in 25% of households in Srinagar city through Srinagar Municipal Corporation and some Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Waste is being collected from hotels, restaurants, office complexes and commercial areas whereas slums in some areas are not provided with sanitation facilities. Waste from slaughter houses, meat and fish markets, fruits and vegetable markets which are bio-degradable in nature are not managed separately instead are dumped at the landfill site.
National policy on waste management is set out in the October 1998 policy statement on waste management- Changing our Ways. It outlines the Government's policy objectives in relation to waste management, and suggests some key issues and considerations that must be addressed to achieve these objectives. The policy is firmly grounded in an internationally recognised hierarchy of options, namely prevention, minimisation, reuse/recycling, and the environmentally sustainable disposal of waste which cannot be prevented or recovered.
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