The small scale sector is assuming greater importance every day. Hundreds of thousands of people start their own businesses at home every year, and untold more dream about the possibility of becoming their own bosses. Starting a business at home is the best when you do not have enough funds. While entrepreneurship has its many potential rewards, it also carries unique challenges. Making a choice of the right project is a difficult decision for an entrepreneur and is an imperative decision. In fact, before starting a business also one has to be thorough with the requirements of current line of industry. Above all taking advantage of various schemes provided by government and other financial institutions. For the reason that rest of the challenges for setting up, a business is based on the type of the product and fund to invest. Entrepreneurship helps in the development of nation. A successful entrepreneur not only creates employment for himself but for hundreds. Deciding on a right project can lead you to the road to success. An entrepreneur requires a continuous flow of funds not only for setting up of his/ her business, but also for successful operation as well as regular up gradation/ modernization of the industrial unit. To meet this requirement, the Government (both at the Central and State level) has been undertaking several steps like setting up of banks and financial institutions; formulating various policies and schemes, etc. All such measures are specifically focused towards the promotion and development of small and medium enterprises. In both developed and developing countries, the Government is turning to small and medium scale industries and entrepreneurs, as a means of economic development and a veritable means of solving problems. It is a seedbed of innovations, inventions and employment.
Some of the major fundamentals of the book are steps in setting up an SSI, preparation of a project report, constitution of the firm, need for planning, registration/licences for SSI, resourcing, non financial, national level, state level, market survey, demand supply gap, major buying countries, plant economics, plastic granules from scraps/waste, process of manufacture to produce colourless transparent plastic granules from waste, P.V.C. hand gloves, plant & machinery suppliers, H.D.P.E. tarpaulins, fibre reinforced plastics, polyester resin, plastic cooler body, disposable plastic cups and glass etc., bleaching, dyeing & finishing of textiles, etc.
The book contains the aspects to plan any business strategy step by step. The book explains about business planning, effective marketing matters, facing the competition, resourcing, economics of plants and more aspects that will help start and maintain a new business. The identification of a suitable project within the investment limit of a new entrepreneur is very difficult. The present book strives to meet this specific entrepreneurial need. The book contains processes formulae, brief profiles of various projects which can be started in small investment without much technical knowledge at small place. This is very resourceful publication for new entrepreneurs, professionals, libraries etc.
in Setting Up an SSI
To set up an SSI is not difficult if you know the methods, startÂ egies
and operations In this chapter this task is explained as a simple, step by step
process. Figure (1) gives a diagrammatic overview. You would do well to give
careful thought to each of the steps and considerations imperative in each such
step. This will help you to successfully set up a business venture of your own
and avoid costly mistakes, which other entrepreneurs have made.
The list of steps is designed to focus
your thought, to help you climb the ladder for searching the role of having your
own sucÂcessful business enterprise. The list does not cover every thing: no
list coult. It is, at best, a good guide. Consider other aspects also that may
be relevant. Possibly certain consideraÂtions may not be relevant; before
ignoring any such aspect comÂpletely satisfy yourself that it does not apply to
Step 1 : Know Yourself
Behind every successful
project there is a strong entrepreneur. It is this person who is the key to
success of the business. Any product/project that you see under the sun is
technically feasible and economically viable. If this were not so, the item
would not have been manufactured and would not continue to be availaÂble.
Simple, but then why one project is more profitable than another. It is the man
behind the project who brings the diÂfference by using certain methods and
management techniques. He matches his qualities with the resources and
requirements of the environment. Therefore, know your qualities, strengths and
weakÂnesses as an entrepreneur.
Fig. Steps in Setting up an
It is elementary that you shall succeed in a business where you have
strengths and likely to fail where you have weaknesses. Your strengths could be
your qualifications, training, experience, upbringing, personality traits,
family background, exposure, knowledge etc. The lack of such factors would be
your weaknesses. If you do not posses the strong points you need not get
dismayed: still you can become a successful entrepreneur. Only thing is to know
such strengths, which you do not possess, or the weaknesses in you. Remember no
man, not even the greatest (including the likes of Swami Vivekananda and Mahatma
Gandhi), was ever perfect. Once you realize your weaknesses, take care to choose
a business which will not be harmed by them and adopt suitable strategies.
Thus, if a non-technical entrepreneur takes up a hitch electronÂic
project he should have on hand ready, sound technical advice. This can be
arranged by hiring a good consultant on retain ship or having a qualified
electronic engineer as partner. Similarly, if one is shy or introvert it is a
weakness in business, which can be taken care of by choosing an ancillary
industry where not many customers have to be dealt with. It is a good idea to
constantly strive to acquire such strengths, which are not possessed but
essential for smooth running of business. Over a period of time Å it is
possible. Neither Birla, Tata nor any of the countryâ€™s big industrialist was
an engineer but with constant efforts they have built up an excellent reservoir
of technical knowledge. Nothing impossible (The word IMPOSSIBLE is Iâ€™M
Every person, even the poorest, possesses sufficient strengths to become
an entrepreneur. If you do not hail from a monied family, start with a low
investment enterprise and slowly build it up. Do not start big just because
money (bank loans etc.) are easily available. If you fail (or fall) investment
(or injury) should be such that you are not hurt but instead can get up and
spring back into action with victory (over your adversaries or adverse facÂtors).
If you do not come from a business family background still you can be like any
successful entrepreneur. Only thing is recognize this weakness and start
building a circle of friends, relatives and business associates who will be
helpful to you in one way or the other in any of the business obligations,
presently or at any time in future.
Once you are clear that you can build yourself to become an entrepreneur,
set your goal and objectives. Acquaint yourself as to why you wish to have your
own venture. Setting up a business is no childâ€™s play. Therefore, you have to
be clear on what, why and how. During the course of planning, organizing and
running an enterprise there will be many distractions, adverse circumstancÂes,
critical relatives, discouraging advisers and jeering friends. But once you are
clear on your goal and objectives the going is smooth as nothing shall deter
you. Remember all toes who plunge in water do not sink, with a little bit of
efforts they swim ashore. So also in business with some efforts, real enthuÂsiasm
and hope for the best, things take to an even word missing. Have you noticed in
the Indian environment that those in business are more successful (in money
terms) than those in employment? And this is when most people prefer a job as
first choice failing which they are pushed into business. For you, business is
by choice and not compulsion; so success is certain. Just keep trying with a
It is advisable to consult your near and dear ones: wife (or husband)
children, parents, friends, relatives, well wishers, teachers, peer groups,
gurus etc. Those around you will have to sacrifice a lot when you undertake the
business endeavor. DisÂcussions with them will hold you in good stead later on.
Even if their views, you know, are going to be negative and discouraging,
consult them. At least some will encourage and later support. Those who are
known for their negative views can be suitably discounted for the bias. Besides,
the negative factors pointed out can be kept in mind and taken care of to ensure
your success. Some excellent ventures have failed because the entrepreneur never
bothered to take the people around him into confidence and had ultimately to
succumb to their negative ways and means. A little bit of help, encouragement
and support from well wishers goes a long way in ensuring enterprise success.
Lastly, discuss your decision to become an entrepreneur with the support
system. Fortunately, a number of organizations have been set up by government,
central in state, to help people like you to take the entrepreneurial decision.
Such assistance and advice is rendered absolutely free of charge. Such
organizations of support system are, Small Industries Service Institute (SISI),
District Industries Centre (DIC), Institute of Entrepreneurship DevelopÂment,
Directorate of Industries, Entrepreneurship Development Cells in schools,
colleges, universities, banks, financial instiÂtutions etc.
Once you have decided to become an
entrepreneur, know your strengths and weaknesses and are familiarized with the
pros and cons of an entrepreneurial career, the next step is to gear yourself
for the endeavour. Possibly there is need for training.
Step 2 : Training
Over 700 Organizations provide different types of training to potentia
entrepreneurs. Most provide such training free of charge. Some may even give you
a stipend for attending their courses. Now, this is quite encouraging and may
motivate anyone to become an entrepreneur.
Such training that may be relevant for you could be EntrepreneurÂship
Entrepreneurship development training is conducted by over 700
organizations all over the country by SISIs (Small Industries Service
Institutes), District Industries Centres (DICs) Banks, State Financial
Corporations, Institute or Centres of EntrepreÂneurship Development, Technical
Consultancy Organizations, Small Industries of Entrepreneurs Association,
Chambers of Commerce & Industries and, others. Such courses are usually
advertised as EDPs (Entrepreneurship Development Programmes) in prominent local
papers or one can contact the concerned EDP organization and register the name.
Such training is usually given free and in certain cases you may even get a
stipend particularly when EDPs are conducted by the SISIs.
As for technical training SISIs conduct trade and shop oriented training
courses of short duration lasting a couple of weeks. The addresses of SISIs and
other institutions providing technical training, workshop and laboratory
facilities is given in Annexure A. Such training can also be had from the ITIs
(Industrial TrainÂing Institute) which you shall find in every district; the
polyÂtechnics; PTDCs (Prototype Training and Development Centres) which operate
under the NSIC at New Delhi, Rajkot, Howrah, Madras and Hyderabad; PPDCs
(Product and Process Development Central Electronic Engineering Research
Institute) at Pilani in RajasÂthan, CECRI (Central Footwear Training Centres at
Agra and MaÂdras; IIP (Indian Institute of Packaging) at Bombay and Delhi;
Electronic Service & Training Centre at Ramnagar in UP: Central Machine Tool
Institute at Bangalore for Machine Tools; Central Machine Tool Institute at
Julandhar in Punjab; State Electronics Development Corporations in various state
capitals and other centres; National State and district productivity Councils
for productivity and energy saving techniques; Oils Technological Research
Institute at Anantpur in Andhra Pradesh; Integrated Training Centre at Nilokheri
in Haryana for bakery, carpet weaÂving, electric motors, diesel engine repair
etc; Training cum production centres in Coir set up by State Government at VarsaÂpuram,
Pothavaran and Gannavaran in Andhra Pradesh; National Design Institute at
Ahmedabad for Industrial DEsigning; National Institute at Ahmedabad for
Industrial Designing; National InstiÂtute for Forgoing Technology at Ranchi;
National Institute for Fashion Technology at New Delhi for readymade garments;
Radio, Television and electrical appliance repair, air conditioning/
refrigeration at Society for Self-employment, New Delhi; Press Tools, dies,
jigs, fixtures, gauges etc. at Central Tool Room, Jalundhar; bakery and
confectionery at Government Polytechnic, Coimbatore; and so on.
State government has set up training-cum productions centres for trades
like soap, embroidery, pattern making, dress making, durry weaving, silk
reeling, chalk crayon, textile printing and dyeing, automobile repairs, battery
charging and repair, book binding and printing etc. The Khadi & Village
Industries Commission organizing technical training through its state-level
boards and trainÂing institutions in 96 village industries that it promotes
(e.g. Pulses, pattal dona, baan etc.) just in case technical training is not
available for manufacturing any product one can negotite for it form the
machinery manufacturer. For example, if you are setting up a project for
industrial fasteners like screws, nuts, bolts etc. or flexograpic printing or
wire drawing then, negoÂtiate for technical training and machinery operations
from their respective plant and machinery suppliers. This should be done before
placing an order. Most machinery suppliers agree to it.
Another solution can be to have in-plant training at an
existisng SSI through your own contact or through the aegis of any governÂmental
organisation like the SISI or any EDP Organisation.
Spectacle frames are quite common and familiar production in all over the
world. Spectacle frames are used by people with weak eyesight. These can be made
of different material e.g. plastic, aluminium steel etc. most widely
manufactured frames are of plastic materials because they are cheap comfortable
and long lasting. Since the plastic technology development, spectacle frames are
constantly produced in plastic through metallic frames, are also seen in the
market. Metallic frames are more liked by youth as they give good look. Fashion
conscious people also like them but with time as fashion changes their taste
also changes. But plastic spectacle frames have regularly captured the market
since the origin and still maximum sale as compared to other metallic frames.
Spectacle is indispensable item for the people with eyesight weakness.
The manufacturing process of plastic
frames is very simple. The main raw materials in this industry are plastic
sheets, requires thickness, wire for insertion, pins, hangs etc. and the plant
and machineries are sheet cutting machine, shaping machine, drilling machine,
wire insertion machine, buffering machine, dies etc.
USES AND APPLICATIONS
1. Plastic spectacle
frames are very simple in processing and reprocessing.
2. They are very cheap
and available in different sizes and qualities.
3. They are non
breakable and long lasting whereas metallic frames easily get fatigue.
4. They normally donâ€™t
leave any impression on nose but in case of regular wearing of metallic frames,
an impression may be seen on the nose.
5. Plastic spectacle
frames are smoothened and friction less.
RAW MATERIAL REQUIRED
There are different types of plastic material, which can be made from
sheet, these sheets are Acrylic, cellulose acetate, cellulose nitrate,
polypropylene etc. But generally cellulose nitrate sheets are only used for the
manufacture of spectacle frames. The use from sheet, the spectacle frame
manufacturing is only limited to the cellulose nitrate. Other raw material such
as Acrylics polypropylene are used in the another from. These are either used in
powder from or in pellet from, the use of Acrylic sheet or polypropylene sheet
does not gives the required toughness of the frame, so the compression moulding
or injection moulding is most efficient and useful
method in these cases.
These days it is being seen that HDPE also used for the spectacle of
The printing of frame can be done by
Flexography printing or Gravure printing, Big and bold letters are printed by
Flexography printing and small and brighting letter are printed by Gravure
Frame Spectacle Glossary
IS: 8260 (Part II) - 1979 - It is a
specification that the frame of spectacle should be complete specification of
BIS. As it will be prescribed in BIS Specification. This BIS can be received
from BIS. (Bureau of Indian Standard) but now a day there is no use of ISI
because number of unit is manufacturing without BIS specification, they are
selling in the market and facing no problem about product.
Spectacle frames are manufactured in various shapes and sizes, so as to
meet consumerâ€™s choice. Spectacle particularly sun glasses are to day popular
as fashion wear. So the design and size will change with change in fashion. The
plastic frames are made either from cellulose acetate or cellulose nitrate.
Manufacturing of spectacle frames are reserved for exclusive development in
small scale sector. Most of the manufacturing units are established in
Maharashtra and Gujarat and specifically in Mumbai, Ahmedabad and Baroda. More
then 130 units are in Gujarat only. As all the firms comprising the industry are
in small scale sector. The industry is understood to have grown at a rapid rate,
trend rate of 14.26 percent p.a. The industry has not only grown in terms of
production but also in terms of production but also in terms of quality, variety
and Technical maturity. Increasing exports clearly indicates this the share of
exports to total production is found almost 50.5 percent. Exports are being made
to Russia and Iran mainly.
The demand for spectacle frame will depend upon like requirement of
glasses due to weak eye, number of blind, fashion and requirement of goggles
etc. All these are long terms and qualitative factors, which can be described
but not measured. So the demand is estimated by trend rate of growth of last
several years. The demand thus estimated is found to be of the order of 33280.26
Beyond this, some demand would arise
from export market also. Prospects of exports are very good in the sense that
India has good footing in international
market and India may have comparative advantages in manufacturing these
products. The share of export demand to total demand may be estimated at 18
percent per annum 1993-94, 1994-95 and 1995-96.
DEMAND SUPPLY GAP
Present Production (1996-97)
Estimated demand by (1999-2000)
Gap between present Production & future demand
New capacity required for bridgingthe Gap.
Conclusion :- Good scope for many new units.
Demand to indigenous demand, total demand for 1999-2000 may estimated to
73,049.06 thousand numbers.
As this is reserved for small scale
industries, it is different to estimate supply position. The gap between present
production and future demand is very high.
MAJOR BUYING COUNTRIES
France, Iron, Kenya, Kuwait. Lebanon, United Kingdom, USSR, Nigeria,
Major Importers of Spectacle Frames: -
M/s. I. Saka & Sons,
54, Insabere Street,
M/s. International Stationery Mark,
Grand Shopping Circle,
Main Bazar, P.O. Box No. 513,
Greater 101, aden, P.O.r,. of Yeman.
M/s. Ahmed A. Aziz Mirghani,
P.O. Box No. 2655,
QUALITY CONTROL AND STANDARD
For the manufacture of high quality of
spectacle frame it should keep in mind that the product should be according to
standard specification. For further information please contact the following
address, from where you can get the specification.
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS
9, Bahadurshah Zafar Marg,
New Delhi - 110 002.
From above address you can get the
PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE
The complete manufacturing process of
spectacle frames (Plastic) consists of following major steps: -
1. Sheet Cutting.
2. Forming and Welding.
3. Wire Inserting.
5. Packing and Despatching.
1. Sheet Cutting
The plastic are available in the form of sheets of big lengths, it is for
the requirement of length and size of frame.
Cutting operation is done in a cutter especially applicable for cutting
Three length are cut for one spectacle
frame. One for the main front portion of the frame and the other two for ear
resting (Kamani). Sizes cut are, of course, different from the front portions.
Now the length are sent for forming.
2. Forming and Welding
Both the operation of forming and
welding of plastic frames are done
in a single automatic machine. First of all, bigger length for front portion of
is fed inside the machine where it is formed in die and pushed forward
where it is welded. Plastic welding joints are so perfect that one cannot
moulded and welding, but in case of metallic welding, one can easily
differentiated between moulded and welded joints. One the front portion is
smaller length for the ear resting are also fed to the machine one by one
with different set of dies where the length are also formed.
3. Wire Insertion
At this stage, to make the ear rest
more rigid and strong, steel wire is inserted in middle of it with half of wire
inserting machine and ends are closed. Steel wire is of 1 mm. diameter and 3
inches long. At times half of the portion of steel wire fattened before being
inserted to give extra strength.
4. Assembling & Buffing
Once the lengths are formed, metallic hinges are fixed no both sides of
ear rest to enable them to fold when not in use. The second portion of hinge is
fixed on front portion of the frame and finally pins are inserted to give the
folding action. Pins should be hammered at one end to form a rivet or they will
come cut end the frame will be disassembled.
assembling frames which are polished by buffering and sent for packing.
For many years a range of leather like materials has been in use for
sockings, linkings and uppers. They are all made of fabrics, usually woven and
mainly of cotton. These base cloths should be carefully selected to give the
requisite physical properties for shoe uppers and they may be coated with oil or
PVC or rubber compound, Cellulose derivatives or synthetic resin (plastics). The
surface may be smooth, with high polish or matt effect, or embossed with
designs, many of which simulate leather or fabrics. All these coated materials
are totally impermeable to air and water, ventilation must therefore achieved by
suitable shoe design.
PVC leather cloth is also known in
other words as artificial leather, which is becoming increasingly popular all
over the world because of shortage of actual leather and high cost of the same.
Artificial leather is specially suitable for upholstery, shoe upper, attachi
cases, brief cases and all kinds of bags. It is water repellent and is
chemically inert. Present inductions show that artificial leather goods have
good export potential.
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (P V C)
Common Name - P V C
Flexible and rubber like, or rigid
according to grade, flexible type has considerable elongation and good recovery,
high tensile and tearing strengths, inert to oxidation and weathering with
freedom for cracking in use, negligible water absorption good electrical
properties, noncracking at temperature down to -30oC, resistant to
most erosive liquids and inert to most organic solvent great resistance to
abrasion non-flammable and low specific gravity. P V C has low thermal
conductivity and thus suitable as an insulating materials. P V C has a softening
point ranges from 80 - 140oC.
It has not exceptional chemical resistance. It decomposes rapidly at 140oC
liberating HCl. It can be stabilized at lower temperatures with acid
neutralizers such as alkali metal salts. Normal PVC is hard tough polymer
soluble in most solvents.
USES AND APPLICATIONS
The prime use of PVC leather cloth is
in the manufacture of heavy duty upholstry for seats, cushions backs and
facings. It is used for wall covering and decoration of house furniture,
auditorium and theater seats. Thin coated fabric is used in book binding and
other decorative purposes.
The PVC leather cloth is being
manufacturing in India by 15-16 firms, most of them located in Maharashtra.
Their installed capacity is not well known, however the present production is
quite in sufficient to need the growing demand. Manufacture of PVC goods began
in India in 1958 with the establishment of imperial chemical industries. However
it was only in 1960 after establishment of petrochemical complexes near, Mumbai
the rapid progress was made which facilitated the greater availability of
petroethylene to produce PVC. The coming up of plastic machinery manufacture and
the availability of improved technical know-how gave further fillup to the
industry progress. At present there are 5,089 plastic processing units in India
providing employment to 3.89 lacs workers.
The plastic industry is now operating with a capital investment of Rs.
The manufacturing of PVC leather cloth has been divided into four
categories. (i) PVC paste making (ii) Coating of PVC paste on the fabric (iii)
Gelling and embossing and (iv) Winding.
For PVC paste, it is noted that the fresh paste is made in every batch of
cloth coating. The pre-prepared paste is not preferred.
Dye pigment, titanium dioxide and lead stearate are mixed with 10% of
DOP, which are ground and mixed in ball mill preferable porcelain lined. The
dispersion is added to PVC (Paste grade) 90% dioctyl phthalate and trioxylenyl
phosphate in a pug mill. Mixing is started at slow speed for one hour or so
followed by medium speed and finally high speed for 3 hours. A free flowing
paste composition thus obtained is left to stand overnight to allow entrapped
air to escape. Now the paste is ready for coating.
The coating is carried out in the reverse roll coater or knife roller
coated head. First the cloth is stretched between rolls so as to be wrinkle free
and a thin coating of PVC paste 1/32 is spread by means of a straight edge,
evenly over the cloth.
Both knife and roll coaters are used for the process. After spreading is
required in usual way. Force more procure coating roll coaters are preferred to
doctor blade coaters. All system employ three or four rolls and there are
various ways in which they may be arranged. The paste reservoir can be arranged
above two of them. The paste is transferred to the fabric passing through one
feed and one idler roll.
In the latter case, the coated material is passed over the steam chest in
the usual way with a bank of infrared heaters above. In special PVC equipment
only infrared heaters or conventional oven are used. It is essential that the
getting temperature is reached and it will be between 160 and 200oC,
therefore the heating equipment must be set much higher. The gelation may be
checked by wrapping specimen round a material and immersion in ethyl acetate.
After gelling or drying the coated cloth is embossed by embossing machine.
GRANULES FROM SCRAPS/WASTE
A plastic is one of a large and varied
group of materials, which consists of an essential ingredient combinations of
carbon with oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and other organic and inorganic elements.
While solid in the finished state, at some stage in its manufacture it has been
or can be formed into various shapes by flow-usually through the application
singly or together of heat and pressure.
Plastics are classified in several
ways. The most accepted
division that covers the entire field is by the behaviour pattern.
Plastics today have a prominent place in the spectrum of materials
frequently used by materials engineers and designers. Engineering properties as
contrasted with data sheet properties. Needed are engineering criteria for
rigidity, strength, endurance and temperature range, which are common to nearly
all plastic applications, as well as more specialized performance
characteristics that are
important only in certain types of special product (e.g. electrical
Among the plastics the various
industrial grade plastic waste available, the following are the materials like
A.B.S. (Acrylonitrite Butadiene Styrene), polypropylene, H.D.P.E., H.I.P.S.,
L.D.P.E. Polystyrene and Acrylic. By above polymers plastic granules will be
USES AND APPLICATIONS
Plastic have many applications, it can do a better job at a lower cost
then other materials. Each plastic should be selected on the basis of its
properties. It is used for the following purposes.
1. Injection Moulding purposes.
2. Extrusion Purposes.
3. Extruded Sheets.
Mechanical engineering applications like gears, cans bearings, brushes
and valve seats.
Industrial applications like various
components for Textiles, Transport Containers, Storage Containers, Tool Boxes,
Bottle crates, Galvanised components for Automobiles and plumbing, woven sacks
for packing a variety of products like fertilizers, powdered chemicals,
pesticides, etc. Sheet linking of Tanks/Vessels for
RESOURCES OF PLASTIC WASTE
Out of the whole spectrum of commercially available material the thermo
plastics predominate and of these ten major polymers i.e. HDPE - High Density
Poly Ethylene and LDPE-Low Density Poly Ethylene, Polystyrene, ABS, PP, HIPS,
LDPE, OPP, OPS, Acrylic and mostly used for packaging and other different
products. Their unique combination
of properties e.g. their durability and resistance against a wide variety of
environments, use in different ways and different products.
It has been noted that at times when the quantity becomes beyond the
storage capacity they are crushed and dumped in the ocean, if the same is
imported/ procured from these sources processed in India the project becomes
highly viable. In India the big sources of high quality industrial plastic waste
1. Maruti Udyog.
Electronics Corporation of India.
Various Docks and Inland Containers Depots.
8. Food Corporation of
All Plastic Units where Plastic Products are Manufactured.
FOREIGN SUPPLIERS OF PLASTIC WASTE
1. M/s. G.K. Sun International
Trading Co. Ltd.,
410, Lafleur, Suite 33, Lasalle
H 8R 3 H6.
2. M/s. Rank Trading Company,
2260, W. Pioneer Pkwy,
Pantego, Texas 76013,
3. M/s. Bright Flax Co. Ltd.,
Ching Shiao East Road,
Sec. 4, Lane 194, Alley - 1,
No. 10 - 5, 6th Floor,
4. M/s. Inter Plast Inc.
6821, Jetport Industrial Blvd.
Tempa, Fl. 3343,
5. M/s. Jackstone &Johnson Inc.
E-385 Enford Road,
Richmond Hill, Ontario
Canada L 8C 3 G8.
6. M/s. Hongkong Plastic Co. Ltd.,
C9, 6/F Hongkong Industrial Centre,
WASTE RAW MATERIAL SUPPLIERS
1. M/s. Malvan Bio-Food & Chemicals
6, Shiv Darshan,
VG Pingle Marg,
Parel, Mumbai - 400 012
Tel. : 022-3756305
2. M/s. IBEX Overseas Pvt. Ltd.
182/B, Bhandarkar Bangalows,
15th Road, Chembur,
Mumbai - 400 071
Tel. : 022-5244450
Fax : 91-22-5564675
3. M/s. Marathe Engineering Industries,
Industrial Estate, Plot No. 7 & 8,
Miraj - 416 410 (Maharashtra)
Tel. : 023382, 822087
Fax : 91-23382-77236
4. M/s. Maruti Udyog Limited,
Jeevan Prakash, IInd Floor,
25, K.G. Marg,
New Delhi - 110 001.
Tel. : 011-3316831, 3354831
Fax : 91-11-3318754
5. M/s. Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited,
Distt. Vadodara - 391 346.
Tel. : 0265-72411, 72611
Fax : 91-265-73164
There is no specific Indian Standard
(I.S.) on Plastic Recycling but regarding the thermoplastic based products, I.S.
Specifications are there. Some of them are
Reflectors, Lighting - Fittings.
3730 - 1965 -
PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE TO PRODUCE COLOuRLESS TRANSPARENT
PLASTIC GRANULES FROM WASTE
The plastic waste is taken for granules
manufacture off contains many impurities like dust, mud, wires and vains. First
of all the scrap is sorted out and the wire and nail are removed by a magnetic
Then the plastic scrap is crushed by
means of a scrap grinder or pulverizer small pieces of desired size.
The crushed material is then fed to the
washing unit where it is washed with water and detergent solution and oil HCL
under this process, the scrap is cleaned and is ready for the next process.
CONCENTRATION OF BLENDING
After washing, the clean scrap is
melted in a venal by direct firing. Now add DMPC (Dimethyl Phthalate) or DOP
(Dioctyl Phthalate) or any other plasticizer. The
ingredients are thoroughly mixed.
The above mass is taken to a mixer,
where solvent is xylene, toluene,
ethanol, cresol, Butanol etc. may be added and diluted thoroughly with the above
solvents till the desired consistency of mass is obtained.
REMOVAL OF COLOUR TO OBTAIN TRANSPARENT
GRANULES BY ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT
The mass is treated with activated
carbon to adsorb all the dyes, pigments, colours owing to the scrap.
This treatment of adding solvent and
activated carbon is repeated two to three times till all the colour is removed.
Now, the above mixture is filtered by
passing through a rotary drum filter where the melted scrap is totally cleaned,
the impurities being retained on the filter.
After the removal of colours, it is
introduced into a distillation column (Tray Type) to remove the solvent and when
a particular viscosity of the molten mass is attained, it is withdrawn out of
the distillation column by means of vier- jorew type pump.
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING
The molten mass is sent to the cooling
unit and at the same time it is dehumidified from its moisture contents. The
cooling is done to a temp of 60oC before it enters the granulator.
The molten mass cooled to 60oC
is passed through the granulator (with cutting arrangement) to obtain desired
The use of plastics of all types is increasing and will almost certainly
continue to increase. Different kinds of plastics, being processed into numerous
items by three different processes.
Injection Moulding are designed for moulding thermoplastic materials such
as Polystyrene, Polyethene, High Density Polyethene, Polypropylene, Cellulose
Acetate, Butyrate, P.V.C. Nylon. These machines are comparatively cheap,
simple in operation, have high production capacity and require less overheads
Following are a few of the hundreds of items produced on this machines :
Fountain and ball pen bodies, Radio
knobs, Push button-keys, Automobile parts, Nylon gears, Wheals and pulleys,
Camera parts, lenses, Film spools, Textile accessories, Cosmetics and
Pharmaceutical Containers, Caps and Stoppers, Plugs, Spoons and Measures,
Buttons and Combs, Clothes line, Grips, Beads Hairlides, Buckles, Earrings,
Toys, Coat Hangers, Small glasses and plates, Tumbler mats, Watch and Jewellery
cases, Paper knives, Cigarette cases and Soap cases etc.
Hand gloves is the smallest safety appliance, which is widely used in the
industries. In the electrical industry there is special type of hand gloves
widely used in the field work. Gloves are manufactured from various raw
materials like rubber, PVC, Cotton etc.
P.V.C. hand gloves is prepared basically from PVC resin. It is inert in
water, it is non-toxic, light and non-corrosive material. It is ineffective
towards acids and alkalies.
There is a several methods of
manufacturing of hand gloves.
1. It should be easily handleable.
2. It should be leak proof.
3. It should be fit to the hand.
4. It should not be corrosive.
5. It should be acid and alkali proof.
6. It should be heat resistance at 50oC.
1. It is used in the electrical work.
2. It is used for lifting acid or alkali.
3. It is used for handling of hot material.
4. It is used in pickup of surgical materials.
It is used in the food industry for sorting of treated sterilized can.
High density polyethylene oriented tarpaulins are becoming increasingly
popular all over the world. Tarpaulin is used for water proofing, for protection
of food grains and other materials, which are stored in bulk.
HDPE Tarpaulin involves woven cloth of HDPE, over which thin layer of
foam or film of HDPE, LDPE for restricting the flow of water.
The most important is the method of applying the film or foam over the
woven HDPE base. The latter is done in two ways. In first type material is used
as a solution in a suitable solvent or mixture of solvents either above or with
added resins, colours and plasticizers. The material is applied by brushing,
centrifuging, dipping, gasket coating, roller coating, rubbing, spraying or
tumbling. The second type employs a very viscous â€œDoughâ€ of the plastics
together with plasticizers and other agents, and supplying by rollers or
otherwise coating on fabrics, paper sheets, iris etc. in continuous lengths.
The coating material is generally
thermoplastic like HDPE or LDPE or may be thermosetting resin compared with
pigments, colourents, fillers and other ingredients. In the extrusion process
soften material is passed through orifice by applying a continuous pressure.
PROPERTIES OF HDPE
HDPE is a type of most widely used
thermoplastic polyethylene (polythene). It is non toxic & resistant to
solvents and corrosive solutions. The other properties are listed below:
0.945 - 0.965
Water Absorption 0.01% - 0.03%
Tensile Yield strength (100 psi)
3 - 5.5
Ultimate Elongation 100 - 1000 %
Compressive St. at yield 1000 psi
Rockwell hardness 45 - 70
Deflation Temperature (oF)
(at 66 psi fiber stress)
140 - 185
The advantages of HDPE over other
thermoplastics includes cost, transparency, temp. resistance, impact strength,
and moisture and chemical resistance. Among its disadvantages are poor grease
resistance, permeability to odour, and gases, poor weatherability, flammability
& poor resistance to high temperature.
USES AND APPLICATION
The tarpaulin finds following uses in
1. It is most commonly
used for covering the food grains & other products, which are stored in open
and in bulk.
2. Tarpaulin is also
used to make the temporary sheds for tenting purposes.
3. Largest use is in
defence department where it is used for temporary shed tents.
4. HDPE tarpaulins are
used widely in number of other places, like making of holdalls, covering on
fruit & vegetable shops, shop front so to save from rains and sun.
5. They are used widely
for tenting purpose in marriage parties, puja festivals other functions and
The bureau of Indian Standards has
published two specifications for the HDPE tarpaulins which are as under :
1. IS : 2789 - 1972, Specification
for special purpose paulins (Tarpaulins).
2. IS : 7903 - 1984, Specification
for Tarpaulins made from HDPE woven fabric.
Indian plastic industry made a widest start in 1926 with imported
materials. Later in 1958 first plant was established
in plastic & petrochemicals sector by ICI
The tarpaulins in India is being manufactured by about 120 units few of
them being in organized sector. The installed capacity of units is estimated
around 1130 millions meters and production is 1110 million meters. The demand
was around 1150 millions meters. The demand
is increasingly continuously due to rapid
of tarpaulin end use industries and in domestic
The HDPE has large number of uses and since it is produced and consumed
by a very large number of industries.
Tarpaulins has a number of end uses and is consumed in bulk hence this
industry has a good scope at present and in future. They are resistant to damage
by tear water and acids. They have excellent chemical
resistance and are light in weight with high strength and can withstand
such higher impact loads. Their Elongation at break is 15 to 25 %. They are much
There is a lot of export potential for
this product now a days. It is required by various countries in large
The statistical report is shown as :
From the above statistics it can be judged that there is ample scope of
export of this product due to its rapidly increasing consumption.
PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE
High density polyethylene granules of extrusion grades are being used as
a basic raw material manufacture of the tarpaulins.
HDPE granules are fed to the hobby of machine. It passes through barrel
of extruder which is covered by a number of heaters working at different
temperatures. The material is moved forward and passed on various temperatures.
It starts melting and becomes in viscous form or semi liquid form. This semi
liquid form of plastic is must for purpose of processing. Here it is completely
plasticized and comes in molten stage. To control constant heating of the barrel
and to prevent damage to barrel by way continuous heating water (cool) is
circulated with help of pipeline fitted inside the barrel.
Molten material is then passed through
cross head. Here it is filtered with help of fine sieve to remove foreign
particles like dust, impurities etc. This filtered plasticized and molten
material is then passed through the die-head and die which is attached just
adjacent to cross head. Plasticized HDPE comes out in form of tape fabric from
the die. The dimensions of tape can be controlled with the help of using
different type of dies. The tape line is passed through water tank for the
purpose of static formation of tape which is stretched by stretching unit which
is just adjacent to water tank. The stretched tape is then reeled on bobbins
giving Ist grade tapes that is used for weaving of fabric.
Lamination (or Sealing) By Hot Rolling
Lamination of HDPE woven fabrics coming
out of plain looms are to sealed to make the fabric impermeable to the water.
This can be done by passing the HDPE
woven fabric and layer lamina of required material and thickness over the
heated rolls to just plasticize them and then following it they are passed
simultaneously through a pair of rolls which presses the heated layers to the
required thickness. The thickness is controlled by adjusting the clearance
between two rolls. Further the layers are cooled down and laminated fabric comes
out which can be used as excellent tarpaulin.
BOTTLES FOR MINERAL WATER
The use of plastics of all types is
increasing and will almost certainly continue to increase. The development of
existing plastics and possibly the discovery of new materials will mean that in
the future plastics will be used for even more purposes than they are used
today. Different kinds of plastics, being processed into numerous items by
INJECTION MOULDING MACHINES
Injection Moulding Machines are designed for moulding thermoplastic
materials such as well Polystyrene, Polyethene, High Density Polyethene,
polypropylene, Cellulose Acetaters, Butyrate, P.V.C Nylon. These machines are
comparatively cheap, simple in operation, have high production capacity and
require less overheads & space.
Moulding Machines are the backbone of
the Plastic industry organized on small as on medium scale. Many machines are in
operation throughout the country and are engaged in the economical production of
industrial and utility items. Following are a few of the hundreds of items
produced on the machines. Fountain and Ball pen bodies, Radio knobs, Push
button-keys, Automobile parts, Nylon gears, Wheals and pulleys, Camera parts,
lenses, film spools, Textile accessories, Cosmetic and pharmaceutical
containers, caps and stoppers, plugs, spoons and measures Buttons and Combs,
clothes line, grips, beads hairlides, buckles, Earrings, Toys, Coat Hangers,
small glasses and plates, Tumbler mats, watch and jewellery cases, paper knives,
cigarette cases and soap cases etc.
PROPERTIES OF P.V.C. RESIN
P.V.C. versatility, durability and
economics has made it one of the most popular plastic all over the world. A
synthetic thermoplastic polymer, which with heat, can be easily moulded, blown
and formed in to almost any shape and size desired. It offers
rigidity/flexibility, hardness, corrosion resistance, colour in wide range so as
to substitute or complement steel, rubber, tin, jute, cotton wood and many other
natural materials in an ever increasing number of applications. Advanced
technology has given nontoxicity, light weight with high strength and
non-contaminating properties which adds to its growing popularity.
1. It can be used for
filling of mineral water.
2. It can be used for
filling vegetable oil or other any liquid food material.
H.D.P.E. is High Density Polyethylene by general agreement in the plastic
industry, plastic films are any plastic materials (mainly low density
polyethylene, medium density polyethylene films, High Density polyethylene
films) made in flat form with a thickness of 10 mils or less.
Flat stock with a thickness greater than 10 mils is referred to as sheet.
This convention is not always strictly adhered to, however.
Films or sheets are made from any of the commonly used polyethylene
(mainly low density & high density), however, the majority of films are
thermoplastics and can thus be easily produced by the common process of solvent
casting, extruding/or calendaring.
The base materials for the films are
(with possible slight variations) identical to the materials used to make
mouldings or extruders. The three most important of the special treatments are
orientation, coating and lamination. In each cases, the special processing is
used to obtain an improvement in some particular characteristic of the original
material or in several related characteristics. In cases of lamination, the
combination of two or more materials produces a synergistic effect, with the
laminate properties superior to the properties of the original base films.
USES & APPLICATIONS OF HIGH DENSITY polyethylene
SHEETS OR FILMS
The most common uses of H.D.P.E. films are for various packaging
Heat-sealed bags for fresh produce and meet thermoformed skin packaging
for meat, and thermoformed blister packages for dry goods, hardware items, and
similar parts. The obvious advantages of visibility and reduction of pilferage
as well as the light fit of the skin packages and will formed blisters, all add
up to excellent acceptance by both commercial interest and the consuming public.
H.D.P.E. films are also used for such
diverse applications as electronic capacitors (in the form of metallized foils),
high temperature wire insulator, thermal insulation of space craft, and in
fabrication of high altitude balloons for research purpose. The diversity in
applications is accompanied by a similar diversity in requirements for the
PROPERTIES OF HIGH DENSITY
Manufacturing method(extrusion, biaxial, orientation,
extrusion, stress Calendering, relieving.
Availability(In sheets, rolls, tapes)
Steel, rolls, tapes,
Maximum width in
temperature Range 0F
70 to 250
Resistance to acids
Resistance to alkalies
Resistance to Greases and oil
Tensile strength lbs sq. in @ RT
10889 - 1984 High density
7328 - 1974 High density
polyethylene materials for moulding and extrusion.
High density polyethylene is one of the very popular thermoplastic
materials, which has been introduced in India during late 1960. Polyethylene
treated at high pressure level is known as HDPE.
Production of HDPE was started in India by poly olefin industries limited
in 1968. The technology was imported from Germany. The production has increased
in last years. In 1994-95 it was 60,000 tonnes, which increased to 90,000 tonnes
in 1995-96. The reason is non availability of high quality polyethylene and the
scarcity of alcohol in indigenous market. The unit has installed capacity of
30,000 tonnes per annum.
At present these are only one unit
polyolefin industries limited whose installation capacity is 50000 tonnes of
HDPE. But it is expected that M.G.C.C., Reliance, Haldia Petrochemical
industries whose installation capacity by 1997-98 will be 80000, 55000, 85000
tonnes respectively. It is also expected that demand of the product is expected
3 times than the future production. It should be noted that Government has fully
liberalized imports of HDPE recently.
DEMAND SUPPLY GAP
There exists a certain demand supply
gap. Due to higher consumption and lower production in our country, always a
definite demand supply gap exists. So new entrepreneur can well venture in this
field by installation one H.D.P.E. films and sheets unit to satisfy the peoples
Fibre Reinforced plastics are essentially structural materials that
belong to the larger family of composite materials. Fibre-Reinforced Plastics
(FRP) have been
born out of sheer necessity imposed by the straight requirements of
present day technology and in particular aerospace technology. Engg. materials
for the present day high technology must combine very special mechanical,
electrical, thermal, chemical properties etc. and at the same time have good
aesthetic characteristic very often, the same material has to combine several
desired quantities like light-weight, high strength, high stiffness, toughness,
chemical resistance, electrical properties, aesthetic appeal etc.
Firstly they have excellent engineering properties, which naturally are
as competitive. Secondly FRP can be easily moulded into any size and shape, the
property not so easily or cheaply achieved in other construction materials like
metals stones, or timber. Finally FRP offers considerable flexibility in the
design of structures.
The current applications of FRP range
from bathtubs, wash basins and suitcases to the heat shield of a
satellite-launch vehicle, the nose cone of the SST concord and the hull of the
mine sweeper HMS milder. About 60,000 different items have been identified that
can be made out of FRP.
Fibre glass Reinforced Thermoplastic Consists of a thermoplastic Polymer,
often referred to as the base polymer, in which fibre glass has been dispersed.
In FRP, the Fiberglass is the stronger
and stiffer, although more brittle, material than the base Polymer which
possesses less strength, the higher Co-efficient of thermal expansion and is
tougher and more extensible.
USES AND APPLICATIONS
Fibre Glass Reinforced Thermoplastics,
because of their unique combination of properties, represents today one of the
fastest growing segments of the plastics industry. It is used in Textile,
Chemical, Food & Beverage, Dairy, Pharmaceuticals, Electrical and
Electronic, Automobile and General Engineering Industries. FRP have various
applications like Rigidity and smoothly finished surfaces, excellent corrosion
resistance, Non toxic, Non corrosive, higher impact strength at low temp., high
dielectric strength, low dielectric constant, High volume and Resistivity, Good
Stiffness, strength & weatherability, Electrical insulation is very safe,
its self lubricating.
The average rate of growth of the glass
fibre (and FRP) industry in India especially over the last few years has been in
the range of 15%. This is much higher than the 4-5% average increase found in
USA. Western Europe and Japan. The main reason for the higher rate of FRP in
India compared to advanced countries is due to the continued efforts in the
development and identification of new area of application. Over a decade back,
the chemical and marine industries were considered to be the prime domain of FRP
apart from its use in translucent roof light sheets by the construction
industry. Presently FRP is finding increasing applications in the Transport
(Road and Rail) Electrical/Electronic, Defence and Renewable Energy Sectors and
that too with a great degree on success. These sectors have gradually began to
realise the long-term benefits of FRP: in spite of its higher prime cost
compared to conventional materials.
Consumption Pattern of FRP
The consumption of FRP in India is
thousand tonnes in 1995 and 1260 thousands tons in 1996, in Western Europe it is
1700 thousands tons in 1995 & 1900 thousands tons in 1996, in USA, it is
1937 thousands tons in 1995 and 1950 thousands tons in 1996, shows that India is
far behind as far as page of FRP is concerned.
1. M/s. Thakkar & Co. Pvt. Ltd.
Quarry Road Malad (E),
Mumbai - 400 097
Tel. : 693251/52
Tlx. : 011-71057 BMT IN.
2. M/s. CEAT Tyres of India Ltd.
Glass fibres division,
Hyderabad - 500 004
Tel : 235182, 230306
Tlx : 0155-6332
3. M/s. Fibro Chem. Industries
B-9, Chatkopar Industrial Estate,
L.B.S. Marg, Ghakkopar (W),
Mumbai - 400 086
Tel. : 022-5170960, 5170770
Fax : 91-22-5170770
4. M/s. Cenka Plastics
Division of Century Enke Limited
Bakthawar, Nariman Point,
Mumbai - 400 021
Tel. : 2027375
Tlx. : 3704 CENI IN.
FORMULATION & PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE
Formulation is the â€˜designingâ€™ of a compound to bring about the
desired properties in the finished moulding, Compounds may be formulated to
provide strength, stiffness, toughness, electrical insulation fire resistance,
etc. and often two of more qualities but the primary
requirement is, however, mouldability.
The flow properties of the compound are determined by the degree to which
the resin is absorbed by the fillers and Glassfibre. It is depend upon
viscosity, basic chemical construction, type and quantity of monomers, etc.
A high viscosity resin will carry reinforcement and filler well but made
mixing more difficult. Combinations of smaller amounts of high absorption
fillers, such a china clay with low absorption one such as calcium carbonate or
silica works fairly well.
The main mixing of the resin, filler
and glass fibre is done in a sigma or spiral blade mixer.
Catalysts and Accelerators
In order to convert the resin to a hard and infusible solid within a
reasonably short time so as to make their moulding a commercial possibility,
catalysts/accelerator are added to resin shortly before the use.
For the hot curing system i.e. where
external heat is applied to the moulding in the range of 80-130oC
a peroxide catalyst such as benzol peroxide is widely used.
PLASTIC SYRINGES, NEEDLES & NEEDLE TUBE PLANT
This project purposes to install entire equipments needed for an
integrated Disposable syringe plant. This means that the project aims at mfg.
all the components
of a syringe within the plant and assemble them into a complete syringe
for sale under its own reliable brand name. To make its product economical, the
project does not intend to import seamless extrunded tubes of miniature
diameters which happen to be quite expensive.
Disposable needle is widely used by doctors for injection purpose with
the help of syringes. With the increase in population in our country,
requirement of medicine
and injections has increased. For more strength of people more number of needles
are required with syringes. Tablets or capsules also pay a great role in the
life of human beings but injections are also to some extent. For quick relief,
needles are used by surgeons, dental surgeons, Veterinary Surgeons, and by the
breeders in the poultry farm, where the farm birds are periodically injected
against epidemics. To avoid wastage and to reduce cost by quantity of syrup,
needles find a wide scope with the veterinary surgeons/doctors.
With the development of pharmaceutical industries the use of syringes and
disposable needles will also develop.
Disposable needles are becoming more
popular in the medical world due to
its lower cost and higher accuracy. Plastic can be used in place of metal
without any problem. The procedure is also relatively easy and cheaper.
IS : 3317 - 1983
IS : 6525 - 1972
Above Specifications may be obtained
Bureau of Indian Standards,
9, B. S. Zafar Marg,
New Delhi - 110 002.
NOTE :- The
use of the ISI Certification Mark is governed by the provisions of the Indian
Standards Institution (Certification Marks) Act and the Rules and Regulations
made there under. The ISI Mark on products covered by an Indian Standard conveys
the assurance that they have been produced to comply with the requirements of
that standard under a well-defined system of inspection, testing and quality
control, which is devised and supervised by ISI and operated by the producer.
ISI marked products are also continuously checked by ISI for conformity to that
standard as a further safeguard. Details of conditions under which a licence for
the use of the ISI Certification Mark may be granted to manufacturers or
processors, may be obtained from the Indian Standards Institution.
Syringe barrel & piston along with needle-base and needle cover etc.,
are the injection moulded items that go into the assembly of a complete syringes
injection moulding of plastic components is effected in a properly designed
& constructed mould.
All basic designs of injection moulds have the cold-runner two-plate
concept, for parts that require large gates. This results in the sprue, runners
& gates solidification with the plastic melt material lying in the cavity.
The â€˜shot sizeâ€™ & clamp tonnage of the injection moulding m/c are
decreased by the size of the sprue and runners. Us of one type of mould depends
on the various factors that influence product qualities.
It is the flow property of the plastics in question that determines
whether or not it can be injection moulded. Even under optimum moulding
conditions, very long flow paths large surface areas of excessively thin
sections may result in short shots. But, parts like syringe barrels, pistons and
needle cover etc., are the most suitable sizes for injection moulding without
The wall thickness is governed mainly
by functional requirements, the size of the moulded part & length of flow
Polyester resin is prepared by reacting a dihydric alcohol with a mixture
of unsaturated and saturated dibasic
acids. The basic resin obtained is not usable because of its high viscosity and
poor reactivity. It is diluted with a reactive unsaturated compound called
monomer and supplied to the user. The remaining
polymer chemistry is carried out at the casteomers and where with the
help of a catalyst and an accelerator, the resin is further polymerized
(cross-linked) to produce a three dimentional infusible structure.
Polyester resin is the unsaturated resin dissolved in and later
cross-linked to thermoset copolymers with vinyl monomers-usually styrene.
Resins are used in a variety of applications which can be broadly
classified under the categories of moulding, casting and coating.
Although the use of thermoplastic
resins in composites is on the increase, thermosetting resins are still the
materials of choice and of these unsaturated
polyester resin occupy a major portion of the material. This is because
of the high versatility of these products.
PROPERTIES AND USES
The over small properties of a polyester resin are decided by its
formulation and reaction conditions. The properties that are decided by
formulation are called â€˜Formulation
dependentâ€™ properties and the properties decided by reaction conditions are
called (Reaction dependent by properties.). A list of these properties is given
A. Formulation dependent
1. Heat distortion temperature
2. Corrosion resistance
5. Optical properties
6. Mechanical properties
1. Acid value
2. Curing characteristics gelatin, peak exotherm etc.
The optical properties i.e. refractive index, clarity, and to some extent
the mechanical properties of the resin are also formulation dependent.
As regards reaction dependent properties the acid value of the resin is a
measure of the available acid functionality in a resin and is closely related to
molecular weight of the resin. For a given formulation as the reaction
proceeds acid value decreases. Resin with lower acid value could have higher
molecular weight and thus better mechanical, chemical and thermal resistance
properties workability of polyester resins also allow higher filler loading.
It is common practice to establish specifications on the following
physical constants of the liquid resins.
1. Acid numbers
3. Specific Gravity
Characteristic of jet under the conditions of cure: Cured resin
1. Physical properties - Mechanical Physical Constant
2. Electrical properties
3. Chemical Resistance
A wide variety of household appliances
and other articles are now made from polyester laminates. Furnitures, luggages,
ornamental, sinks, trays, handles, washing machines and toys are among extensive
INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
The following specifications are available for reference:
6411 - 1972 Gal Coated glass fibre
reinforced polyester resin bath tubs. Lays down requirements for materials
construction, workmanship, finish, performance as well as testing procedure.
I.S. 6746 - 1972
Unsaturated Polyester resins systems
for low pressure fibre reinforced plastics.
Prescribes requirements, methods of
sampling and test for polyester resin systems for fibre reinforced
plastics within the pressure range 0 to 14 kgf/cm2.
Requirements for 5 types depending on the use and resistance to heat and
flammability are also covered.
Now a days plastics are used in almost all fields. It has a wide
application in variety of automotive, appliance and hard ware. It is also used
for the decoration purpose, to give attractiveness and long-life it is worth
while to electroplate it by some suitable material such as nickel or chromium or
copper, according to the choice and requirement of the consumer. It is
customarily important to increase the surface hardness and moisture permeability
of the plastic unless it may be unsuitable for the purposes i.e., to make
gramophone recording, reflectors, electrical condensers, antistatic devices etc.
The metallisation of plastic moulds for electroforms and electrotypes
including gramophone stamper can also be done. The plastics which are most
suitable for the Electroplating are phenol-formaldehyde (Bakelite) or
Urea-formaldehyde and injection moulding ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene
terpolymer) special plating grade moulding compounds are generally preferred for
better quality plating. Also, for successful plating basic design criteria
should be observed avoiding blind holes, large flat surfaces, and sharp corners.
On the other hand a special attention should be given on the moulding operation,
prior to plating. Polypropylene may also be used for electroplating.
The process of electroplating of plastics is a branch of metal finishing.
Electrode position is mainly based on the conductive properties of the
substrate, on which the plating is to be done. Since plastics are non-conductors
: thus there is some difficulty of direct electrode position. Thus special
techniques are involved for electroplating. It is necessary that surface of that
medium be made conductive in some way : after making the surface conductive:
electroplating may be done directly as that for metals or conductors.
All nonconductors can be electrolessly
plated but only a few can be plated to give good adhesion and appearance. A
highly active, unstabilized electroless
bath will coat any object it contacts, including its container. This
process is called encapsulation because there is little or no adhesion between
the metal deposit and the substrate.
Electroless films have two functions: -
1. They provide an
electrically conductive layer, which allows further coating by electroplating.
2. They provide a secure
bond between the plastic & the electroplated layer.
Plated plastics have several disadvantages, plating normally lowers
impact strength. The coefficient of thermal expansion is much higher for
plastics than for metals, so stress build-up and adhesion loss can occur on
severe thermal cycling. Blistering can occur during corrosion. The relatively
low heat distortion temperature of most plated plastics can also limit
One of the most important advantages is
that weight savings can be as much as 60% as compared to an equivalent all metal
part. The moulded plastic parts need no buffing or other finishing step before
plating. Plastics plated have improved coefficient of thermal expansion, and
improved abrasion and weathering resistance. Where as a metal parts may
completely corrode away and fail in service, only the surface of a plated
plastic can be corroded.
USES AND APPLICATIONS
The Electrodeposited plastics are mainly made due to artistic or
sentimental purposes, such as bronzing of baby shoes, and other items in our
daily life. These are also used in plating the decoration pieces which primarily
made of plastic.
Recently, there techniques are widely
applied to electronic fields to make printed circuits on PVC.
1979 Sodium Hypo Phosphite for
electroless plating - (Reaffirmed 988)
1981 Succinic acid for electrolyze
1977 Method for thermal cycling test
for evaluation of electroplated plastics.
1977 Methods for measurement of
thickness metallic coating on plastics.
The use of the ISI Certification Mark is governed by the provisions of the
Indian Standards Institution (Certification Marks) Act and the Rules and
Regulations were chalked out under its frame. The ISI Mark on products covered
by an Indian Standard conveys the assurance that they have been produced to
comply with the requirements of that standard under a well-defined system of
inspection, testing and quality control which is devised and supervised by ISI
and operated by the producer. ISI marked products are also continuously checked
by ISI for conformity to that standard as a further safeguard. Details of
conditions under which a licence for the use of the ISI Certification Mark may
be granted to manufacturers or processors, may be obtained from the Indian
The use of electroplating has increased steadily for last few years. New
applications are found regularly and continuous growth prospects exist.
These are attached to electronic Industry, Production of cycle and
Electroplating plastics work, have been established in the larger cities
and undertaken a variety of Jobs, such as plating of hospital instrument,
decorative items, electrical and hardware items, and especially representation
The future of electroplating plastic finishing industry depends not only
upon the technical improvements in operation but also the availability of the
necessary raw materials at a reasonable cost. The main raw materials used for
electroplating and finishing industry in India are chromium, Nickel, zinc
cadmium and copper.
Requirements of Chromium and Zinc etc. are barely met by indigenous
However the demand of Nickel and
Cadmium etc. is mostly met by imports of these metals from various countries.
While setting up a business enterprise, particularly SSI, certain
statutory requirements have to be fulfilled. Some of these reÂquirements are
optional and some are compulsory. This chapter gives details of all such
important aspects that an entrepreneur should consider.
(Temporary) Registration: Provisional registration enables the entrepreneur
to initiate necessary steps to bring the unit into existence. Once the unit
comes into existÂence it is required to be converted into
regular/final/permanent registration. The provisional registration can be done
at the district headquarters with the DIC and is given automatically with 7 days
of receipt of application on prescribed form by the General Manager. It is valid
for one year in the first instance and may be renewed for a further period upto
one year in two monthly extensions on submission of satisfactory proof that the
party is taking effective step. If production could not be comÂmenced for
reasons outside the entrepreneurâ€™s control, extension of provisional
registration period is usually considered.
Where there is no DIC, for instance in the four metropolitan cities of
Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Madras, provisional regisÂtration is to be obtained
from the directorate of Industries or the designated office located in these
cities. In case of any difficulty in obtaining of the provisional certificate
the reÂspective Directorate of Industries of the state can be apÂproached.
(final) Registration: After the entrepreneur has taken all steps to set upto
the unit, that is, (i) constructed/acquired the factory building. (ii) installed
all requisite machinery, testing equipment and pollution control gadgets (where
required), (iii) obtained power connection, he can apply for permanent
registration certificate to the DIC/DI. Within seven days of receipt of
application the entrepreneur is inframed of the date/time of unit inspection by
the GM/Competent Officer nominated by the DIC. The inspection includes capacity
assessment. On being satisfied of production capability a recomÂmendation for
issuance of permanent registration is made to the DI.
The application for permanent registration should normally have following
1. Rent receipt/lease or
purchase of sale deed/municipal tax receipt.
2. Shop Act
Licence/Factory Act Licence (where applicable).
Municipal/Industrial Licence (in municipal corporaÂtion area).
Partnership deep/Certificate of Incorporation (if a Pvt./Public Ltd.
Company)/income tax assessment order.
5. Other essential
licences like Centrarl Excise Licence/Drug Control Licence/NOC from Water
Pollution Control Board (whatever is applicable).
6. Bills for machinery
purchased together with the list of machinery certified by a Chartered
Sanction for electricity/power or current electricity bills.
Extracts of purchase register for preceding fifteen days, in case the
unit has already gone in production.
Extracts of sales register for preceding fifteen days, in case the unit
has already gone in production.
First three sale notes cash memos (if applicable).
Extracts of the preceding one month from Workersâ€™ Muster roll (in case
unit is already in production).
Extract of the preceding fifteen days from production register (in case
unit is already in production).
as Ancillary Unit: The entrepreneur has to fill up the specific application
form to get his unit declared as â€œSmall scale ancillary unitâ€ (the
investment limit here in plant and machinry is upto Rs. 75 lakhs). This form is
to be submitted to the Directorate of Industries with a copy of the Small
Industries Service Institute (SISI) in the State. SISI examines the facts stated
by the unit and on satisfying itself regarding the eligibility, recommends it to
the State Directorate of Industries for registration of such unit â€œancillary
unitâ€. On receipt of such a recommendation, the concerned authority (General
Manager of the District Industries Centre or any other officer empowered to
grans SSI registration) will grant the registration as Small Scale Ancillary
of Registration: Provisional registration entitles the new entrepreneur to
(i) apply for a shed or plot in an industrial estate or a developed area; (ii)
apply for Corporation/Municipality for other licences; (iii) apply for
power/water connection; (vi) apply for financial assistance from banks and other
institutions, (v) apply to the National Small Industries Corpn./State Small
Scale Industries basis; (vi) obtain sales tax, excise registration, etc.
wherever required; (vii) take other steps/approvals that may be necessary to
import licence for capital goods/raw materials.
of Existing Unit: An existing unit which has not registered itself earlier
can also apply for registration at any stage.
on Registration: Certain categories of undertakings cannot get the
registrating as Small Scale industrial units. General guidelines in this regard
are discussed below:
Undertakings to which Chapter-III of MRTP Act, 1969 applies, are not
eligible for recommendation as SSI. Similarly, undertaking owned by foreign
companies, their branches or by companies in respect of which more than 40% of
the paid-up equity share capiÂtal is held directly by foreign companies, their
branches or subsidiaries or by foreign nationals or non-resident Indians (on non
repatriation basis are not eligible for registration as small scale industry).
No SSI registration can be granted to an undertaking which is a
subsidiary or owned or controlled by any other undertaking.
Units producing items which have been banned either by the CenÂtral or
State Government cannot be registered (for list of such items refer Annexure B).
of Registration may be deregistered on any one or more of the following grounds:
If the unit remained closed continuously for a period exceeing one year.
If the unit failed/refused or avoided to give full and truthful
information as called upon by the registration authoriÂty from time to time and
in particular the half yearly report.
If the unit has been proved to misutilise the raw materials allocated to
If the unit is found to be subsidiary of or owned or controlled by medium
an large scale undertakings.
The orders for de-registration will have to be signed by an officer not
below the rank of Joint Director of Industries or the General Manager of
District Industries Centre Under whose jurisÂdiction the unit is locted. A show
cause notice to the party will be sent by registered post at the address given
in the applicaÂtion form with 30 days time for reply. If a show cause notice
could not be served to the party concerned either because of the party refusing
to accept it or the unit was found to be closed, the notice may be duly pasted
on the premises. Action to deregisÂter the unit may be taken only after the
expiry of 30 daysâ€™ time from the day of pasting of the notice. Any unit
aggrieved by the order of de-registration may appeal to the next higher
prescribed authority as notified by the State Governments within one month of
receipt of the intimation for de-registration. The appellate authority may,
after examining the records of the case and after making necessary enquiries,
pass suitable orders whether to set aside the order of de-registration or
maintain it. The names and addresses of all units de-registered by the Director
of IndusÂtries are communicated to the DC (SSI).
(h) Expansion/Diversification: A unit wishing to expand by
increasing the production of the item for which it was already licensed, need
not obtain any fresh registration or any endorseÂment on its registration
certificte unless it involves the addiÂtio of new plant and machinery
(indigenous or imported) and consumption of additional scarce and imported raw
material. A unit, which may like to diversify its productions, adding one or
more items for which it was not earlier registered, will have to get its
registration duly endorsed for such items after a techniÂcal inspection. An
application indicating the new products proÂposed to be manufactured, the
additional machinery installed or proposed to be installed and the requirements
of additional imported and scarce raw materials will have to be submitted to the
registering authority for the purpose.
(i) Upon-Graduating from
small to medium scale unit: When a unit crosses the investment limit prescribed
for a small scale/ancillary unit by the process of natural growth, it will need
registration with DGTD or other technical authorities. Then the following
situation will arise.
The unit engaged in the manufacture of
such items which are not eligible for exemption from the licensing provisions in
terms of the notification issued from time to time by the Ministry of Industrial
Development e.g. units engaged in the manufacture of items exclusively reserved
for small scale sector or units reÂquiring foreign exchange for imports of
components and raw mateÂrials in excess of the prescribed on Businessâ€™â€™
(COB) licence on crossing this limit. Such units will have to submit their appliÂcation
in the prescribed manner to the Secretariat for Industrial Approvals. In
granting the registration with DGTD/Technical Authorities for the COB licence,
Government may impose, in part, obligations on such units consistent with the
policy of protecÂtion to the small scale sector. However, if a small scale
wishes to have some more time for the transfer to the DGTD list, a grae period
upto two years will be allowed during which period it will continue to enjoy all
the facilities under the small scale indusÂtries programme. A special report,
however, on such units will be made by the State Directorate of Industries to
the Development Commissioner, Small Scale Industries.
Some formalities are required
to be completed by all categories of entrepreneurs while others by specific
category of entrepreÂneur depending upon their industry line, or equipment
installed or size of the unit. The various legal requirements are listed as
For successful establishment and running of a business enterÂprise,
particularly a manufacturing concern, a lot many factors have to be considered
and inputs resourced. Fortunately, the Government has built up a wide and
comprehensive network of institutions at Central, State and District level
throughout the country. For practically every step that you have to take for
establishing your enterprise, there is a support agency availaÂble. Details of
such institutions are briefly described under two categories:
(a) Small industries
Development Organization (SIDO):
- Policy formulating,
coordinating and monitoring agency
Maintaining close liaison with the Central ministries, Planning
Commission. State Government and other Organizations concerned with Small
Industry Development and serves as the secretariat for All-Indian Small Scale
Provides a comprehensive range of industrial extension services including
technical, managerial, economic and marketing assistance through its network of
26 small industries service institutes, 32 branches of SISIs, 41 extension
centres, four regional testing centres, one product and process development
centre, two footwear training centres and four production centres. In addition,
20 field testing stations are being estabÂlished in areas of concentration of
specific industries for providing testing facilities to small industries.
Small Industries Corporation (NSIC) with four regional offices):
- Supply of
machinery on hire purchase basis
Registration of units for participation in the purchase programmes of the
Central and State Governments and other central institutions
Marketing assistance - internal and export
Development of prototype of machinery and equipment, and other
- Basic and advanced
training in selected trades asnd technologies through its four prototype
development and training centres.
Commissioner for Industrial Cooperatives Coordination of Policies for
National Institute of Small Industry Extension Training (NISIET),
Hyderabad Inter disciplinary approach in the areas of training, research and
consultancy relating to development and management of small and village
industries (earlier known as Small Industry Extension Training Institute - SIET)
National Institute for Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development
(NIESBUD), New Delhi
Coordinates research and training in entrepreneurship development and
devises specific training programmes suited to various categories of
Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India (EDII),
Ahmedabad-promoted by IDBI, IFCI, ICICI and SBI
Industries requiring air pollution control should obtain
consent of the SPCB before commencing production. Typically the following
industries would require such consent (the list is indicative not exhaustive):
Food & Agricultural Products
Ores/mineral (Beneficiation, pelletisastion etc.)
Power, generating/boiling plants
Paper and Pulp
Plant for recovery from and disposal of wastes
Central Institute of Tool Design (CITD), Hyderabad Training in the design
and manufacture of tools, jigs, fixtures, dies and moulds
Advisory and consultancy services including assistance in the design and
development of tools.
Recommend measures to standardize tools, tooling eleÂments components
Central Tool Room and Training Centres (at Ludhiana, Delhi, Calcutta and
Provision of tool room service and facilities in designs, manufacture and
training, Tool rooms at Delhi and BengaÂlore and owned by the respective State
Central Institute of Hand Tools (CIHT), Jalandhar
Provision of improved technology, raw materials, designs and testing for
hand tools industry
Institute for Design of Electrical Measuring Instruments (IDEMI), Bombay
Provision of technical consultancy in the design and deveÂlopment of
electrical and electronic instruments, calibration and testing, tool design,
tool fabrication, prototype fabrication and training.
Central Machine Tool Institute Bangalore
Central Institute for Plastics Engineering and Tools, Madras (Ministry of
Petroleum and Chemicals)
National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology Ranchi.
II. State Level
Directorate of Industries
With a network of District Industries Centres at the district level,
industries officers at the sub-division level and extenÂsion officers at the
registration of small scale units and recommending cases of large/medium
industries to appropriate authorities.
* raw material quota
* import quota
financial assistance under the State Aid to Industries Act
training of entrepreneurs
compilation of statistics
* overall administration
of the village and small industry sector and maintaining close liaison with the
central and state level organizations concerned with industrial development.
Small Industry Development Corporation
* supply of scarce raw
materials through raw material depot
machinery on hire purchase
* joint ventures in the
small scale sector
* trade centres
Industrial Infrastructure Corporation; Industrial Area Development
* plans and develops
industrial estates and industrial areas
Industrial Development Corporation:
Promotion of industrial units in the medium and large scale sector
including joint and public sector ventures
Planning and development of industrial estates and industrial areas (in
Industrial Investment Corporation:
finances medium and large units up to a certain investÂment ceiling with
direct participation in share capital and underwrites new issues
Agro Industries Corporation:
* supply of agricultural
machinery/equipment on hire
development of agro-based industries
* sale of agro-inputs
like fertilizers and pesticides
Electronics Development Corporation:
Promotion of industries in the field of electronics including joint
sector and public sector projects
Leather Industry Development Corporation and other similar commodity
development of specific types of village and tiny sector units relating
to a particular trade
Rural Industries Marketing Corporation:
marketing of village industry products and provision of a variety of
services needed by village and tiny units (Gujarat state has set up this
Industrial and Technical Consultancy Organization (sponsored by
technical consultancy services to small and medium scale projects
Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
The countryâ€™s central bank, responsible for currency and
monetary regulation and other central banking functions besides being banker to
the government. Also responsible or supervision of all banking institution
provision of rural credit and exchange cenÂtral.
Entrusted with the administration of the Credit Guarantee Scheme, under
which government guarantee is provided for advances granted by banks and other
credit in situations to small industrial units.
All-India Term Lending Institutions
Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) coordinates in conformity
with national priorities the activities of instituÂtion engaged in financing,
promoting, developing industry operatÂed with schemes such as:
* direct assistance
* soft loan scheme
technical development fund
refinance of industrial loans
special refinancing facility
rediscounting of bills
* seed capital
subscription to share and bonds of financial instituÂtions
development assistance fund
Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI)
* long term loans of new
industrial units as also for expansion, diversification, renovation or
modernization of existÂing units both in rupees and foreign currencies,
underwriting of equity, preference and debentures issues, subscribing to equity,
preference and debenture capital
* risk capital
foundation provides soft loan as part of equity capital to new entrepreneurs,
particularly technologists and professionals
benevolent reserve fund provides assistance for deveÂlopmental purposes.
Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI):
currency loans to small enterprises under its Rupees assistance programme
and foreign currency loan
Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India (IRBI):
provides financial and other types of assistance to sick or closed
industrial concerns, and operates, in the case of small units, through state
level agencies by way of sanctioning â€œLine of Creditâ€.
provide managerial assistance
guidance for renovation and modernization
Export Import Bank of India (EXIM Bank):
finances, facilitates and promotes foreign trade of India
coordinates the working of institutions engaged in financing export and
finances export of consultancy and
related services, assists Indian Joint ventures in the third countries, conducts
export market studies, finances export oriented industries and provides
international merchant banking services
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD):
refinancing the farm and non-farm operations in rural are as inthe
non-farm sector, village and tiny sector industries located in rural areas are
supported through refinancing
National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC):
promotes and finance cooperative enterprises in proÂcessing marketing
storage and export relating to agro based industries
* agro-service centres
promotion of units for formulation of fertilizers, pesticides and
workshop for fabrication of agricultural machinery/implements
margin money processing units
Other Financial Institutions
(i) Export Credit
Guarantee Corporation (ECGC)
supports and strengthens export promotion drive (a) by providing a range
or risk insurance covers to exporters against loss in export of goods and
services, (b) by offering guarantee to banks and financial institutions to
enable exporters to obtain better facilities from them, (c) to give customer
satisfying service at low cost and with high efficiency.
Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC):
operates four guarantee schemes: (a) small loans guarÂantee scheme, (b)
small loans (small scale industries) guarantee scheme, (c) small loans
(financial corporations guarantee scheme, and (d) service cooperative society
State Financial Corporation (SFC):
provides long and medium term loans for acquisition of fixed assets of
small and medium industries
guarantees payment for purchase of machinery of suppliÂers within India
guarantee loans raised by industries from commercial banks, cooperative
foreign exchange loans under Worlds Bank line of credit
special capital assistance upto Rs. 200,000
province term finance and working capital advances classified under cash
credit, overdrafts, demand loans, purÂchased/discounted/advanced against inland
bills, purchased/disÂcounted advances against import bills and clean advance
Regional Rural Banks (RRBs)
provide banking facilities in remote and unbanked areas among other
places of the selected districts and provide credit to agriculturists, artisans
and other self employed persons belonging to weaker sections. The loans asre
given in kind
provide credit to farm and non-farm cooperative socieÂties.
For specific details, care and precautions refer Chapter II. For example,
for land acquisition aspects like residential, industriÂal, non-conforming, Lal
Dora land open and covered area provision for expansion, etc. are discussed in
Step 11: Arranging Land & Building. It also describes care for materials
required in conÂstruction, plant layout and other related factors.
For the machinery step 12: Procuring
Plant & Machinery. Details out role of NSIC/SSIDC, import procedures and
other relevant factors. Significance of utilities, single/three phase power
connections, transformer and wiring connections, voltage requireÂments are
described in Step 13: Utilities. For raw materials (import procedures, scare
items, quotas, etc.) refer Step 14: Raw Materials. While this Chapter gives you
information on financial institutions and assistance offered Step 9 may be
referred to for procedures on arranging finance.
Whom to contact for what?
A publication like this cannot give addresses of nearest offices of all
support organizations that would be helpful as that would be a directory in
itself. As illustrative list of institutions with addresses and their role in
setting up household, cottage, tiny or small scale industry in Delhi is given in
Annexure G. A similar list can be prepared for your area/State with the help of
the telephone directory or by contacting the nearest DIC/SISI.
Dyeing & Finishing of Textiles
The basic object of bleaching of textiles is to accomplish
whiteness and of dyeing for various shades through bringing about a permanent
union between the dyes and the fibres. The textiles are so coloured that the
colour is fast and is not ordinarily removed by such operations viz. washing,
rubbing, sunlight etc.
Better dyeing effects can be achieved when it is conducted in solution or
indispensed colloidal condition or freely divided state. The fibre being
subjects to this dye in solution condition and subsequent the dye being rendered
insoluble or fixed by same mean, when observed upon or within the fibres or
through direct contact with the fibres.
Finishing of the textiles encompasses all process which fabrics undergo
including bleaching and dyeing.
Finishing improves the attractiveness ass well as serviceability of the
fabrics. Thus finishing may be regarded as the final stage in the embellishment
of the fabrics.
However, finishing processes may broadly be classified into two main
Physical: Physical and mechanical processes range from simple drying
over steam heated rollers or stretches which both dries as well as stretches the
Chemical: Finishing methods may comprise by the application or
deposition of chemical compounds or the performance of chemical reaction with
the fibre itself.
Cotton textile industry by
and large occupies a unique place in the industrial map of the country. There
are both single large organized industries as well as a large number of
ancillary industries depending upon the sector. However, the Indian textile
industries undergoing bleaching] dyeing and finishing of textile has witnessed a
phenomenal growth in the industrial balance. The growth of the loom age has,
however been significant as a result of the government policy. The new textile
policy envisages that capacity by created by introduction of new units to meet
the demand supply gap.
(Fevicol and Vamicol Etc.)
Chemical materials required for joining or sticking two
same or different surfaces, are generally known as adhesives. A good industrial
adhesive must satisfy the conditions such as, maximum mechanical strength of the
bond, ease and rapidity of application, minimum setting or drying time or quick
development of bond strength, resistance to moisture, ability to withstand
temperature variations, resistance to the deterioration by aging, chemically
inert to the surfaces to be joined and finally should not have objectionable
odour or be otherwise harmful to health.
Adhesives may be applied by one of the
following methods depending upon the type of adhesive to be used:-
Directly by brush
(b) By gumming machines
(c) By automatic machines
(d) By spraying
(e) By glazing
By two solution process
(g) By dry method.
Some adhesives such as gums and natural resins etc. are applied in cold
and known as cold adhesives while animal glues and bituminous adhesives are
applied in hot and known as hot adhesives.
Lamination is the process of combining two or more plies of material into
a new composite. This plies may be alike or different. The product may thus be
designed to possess unique properties not inherent in any of the constituents.
An adhesive solution is applied to one or both surfaces to be joined. A great
variety of adhesive materials are in current use in wood lamination industry.
The solution depends on many factors such as tradition, cost, production,
laminations and performance requirements.
Formaldehyde-based condensates with phenol, resorcinol, urea and melamine
are of greatest importance in the wood industries, but urea formaldehyde resins
are utilized in conjunction with starch to provide improved water resistance.
The formaldehyde based condensates are used now-a-days for making decorative
laminates for paper, for furniture laminating etc. Such as sungloss and sun mica
etc. A good adhesive for these types should have the properties of low cost,
indefinite pot-life, quick tack, good adhesion to the materials, rapid cure at
relatively low temperature and resistance of cure bond to moisture, solvents,
heat and micro-organism.
Phenol Formaldehyde Resin
These resins have extremely high water resistance property
and are of tremendous importance for gluing wood, in this application they are
the most durable class of wood adhesives known. The cold-curing type, and
especially that prepared from resorcinol, is widely used in the construction of
lamination where strength and great durability are required.
Phenol is reacted with 37-50%
formaldehyde at 50-100ÂºC. In the presence of excess formaldehyde and a basic
catalyst such as sodium hydroxide, ammonia or tertiary amine, the condensation
goes through three stages. Phenol formaldehyde resins have properties of good
resistance to moisture, acids, solvents and heat.
Urea Formaldehyde Resin
These UF resins are important
adhesive resins in plywood manufacture and lamination. Urea and formaldehyde
react to form first a water soluble substance called dimethylol urea which can
be prepared in various concentrations and viscosities. This substance can be
further insolubilized by further treatment. Dimethylol urea has been modified
with casein and used as a glue for plywood manufacture by setting in a press at
as temperature of 100ÂºC. The U.F. adhesives are suitable for bonding only
cellulosic materials such as wood, paper or cork etc. U.F. adhesives incorporate
hardeners according to whether they are in powder, liquid or foam form. These
adhesives have high bond strength and joints made with these adhesives are
Urea and formaldehyde are boiled in
aqueous solution in the molecular ration 1:2 in presence of an acid catalyst
such as formic acid. These resins are strong and rigid, free of odour and taste.
Thermoplastic resins used in adhesive
manufacture are polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, acrylated resins, etc. Of
major importance in the manufacture of adhesives are the first two. Polyvinyl
Alcohol (p.v.a.) is a water soluble
synthetic resin made by hydrolysis of polyvinyl acetate. This is used in the
water resistant laminating adhesives, remoistenable adhesives and many other
adhesives used in industry.
There are various types of adhesives based on different raw materials
meant for diversified industrial applications. viz. wooden furniture, leather
plastics, plywood, ceramics, etc.
Thus their use being manifold, these adhesives find high market potential
and better future prospects.
As some type of adhesives are imported,
to cater to the outgrowing needs of the country, this implies additional units
installation, thereby inviting new entrepreneurs for the lucrative trade.
Computer ribbon is a narrow woolen fabric (tape) of varying
width, made of cotton, silk cr nylon and has the highest thread count of any
fabric is general use.
The origin and growth of this ribbon industry has been closely
interlinked with the typewriter industry. In the early stages long ribbons of
cotton, coated with carbon black were used, but later these were replaced by
ribbons of silk, coated with colour pigments. These ribbons can be classified in
the two types viz. single coloured and bicoloured. Single coloured ribbons are
blue black in colour, while the bicoloured ribbons ae combinations of blue-red
The fabric used for the production of
ribbons should be closely woollen and control more thread counts than in
Uses & Applications
Computer ribbons find
extensive application in computer printers.
The computer industry in our country made spectacular progress in the
1980s and has become a part and parcel of our life. Inspite of this dramatic
increase in production and utilization of computers and their peripherals, this
industry offers a vast scope for increasing production so as to meet the
domestic demand fully and also to earn valuable foreign exchange through
The new policy announced by Government
of India recently is very encouraging and provides great opportunity for the new
entrepreneurs. But the entrepreneurs will have to provide quality product at
competitive prices. Competition from imports would be there and entrepreneurs
will have to plan accordingly. Secondly the market at present is concentrated in
major cities, though it is likely to grow fast in semi-urban areas in coming
years. Thirdly the technology is likely to change very rapidly and entrepreneurs
will have to be dynamic so as to accommodate the new technologies and satisfy
the growing demand.
Formulation of Inks
Parts by Wt.
Number of Formulations
Parts by Wt.
Parts by Wt.
The word â€˜cosmeticsâ€™ to
the average user, means preparations for beautifying complexion, skin, hair etc.
But cosmetics covers a number of thins to make human beings complete in all
Antidandruff: â€œDandruffâ€™â€™ or scaly disease of
the scalp exists with the continuous but normally imperceptible sloughing of the
outer epidermal layers of the skin becomes glossy visible. A product which
cleans the scalp, frees it from adherent debris, and regulates the amount of
residual scalp and hair oils to retain healthful scalp condition is an
â€œantidandruffâ€™â€™ preparation of the first class.
& Deodorants: A variety of substances which have a stringent action
inhibit the flow of perspiration. This type of substances is thought to react
with proteins of the skin, causing coagulation accompanied by blocking the
openings and reducing the flow of sweat. A wide variety of products which are
deodorants and antiperspirants have been successfully marketed.
Oils: The most convenient method of cleaning the diaper area is by the use
of light mineral oil and lotions, followed by dusting with talcum powder.
Creams are both oil-in-water and water-in-oil type emulsions.
Creams are of many types such as
Bleach Creams etc.
All these creams are stable emulsions and their general process of
manufacturing is discussed.
Colours: The colours used for colouring cosmetic can be classified into
Lotions: Only those solutions, which neither affect nor claim to affect the
structure and functioning of the eye, and are not used for the cure, instigation
or prevention of diseases, may be included in the cosmetic category.
Present day fashions in womenâ€™s apparel have created a large demand for
depilatories. Good grooming required that one keeps legs, arms, and armpits free
from unsightly hair.
Dyes: The development of hair colouring followed the traditional use of
simple and complex substances from plants, metallic compounds, and mixtures of
these two types.
Used by almost all women to brighten the colour of their lips, has become a
leading and rather uniform item of makeup. Composed essentially of an oil-wax
base stiff enough to form a stick.
Lacquers: These are used to decorate and enhance the appearance of nails.
The major ingredients of nail lacquers are film formers, resin, plasticizer and
A face powder is a cosmetic product, which is applied to the face by means
of powder puff. It is usually employed at the end of the makeup process, as a
finishing touch, either directly to the face, or over a powder base.
Shampoo may be defined as a product having some cleansing and foaming action,
which leaves the hair soft, lustrous, and manageable.
Properties and Characteristics
Antidandruff: A product cleans the scalp, frees it
of adherent debris, and regulates and amount of residual scalp and hair oils.
They contain specific germicidal and bacteriostatic agents and other additives
and Deodorants: Antiperspirants have a stringent properties and thus reduce
the flow of perspiration. Deodorants kill the bacteria, present in the skin,
which decompose sweat. Antiperspirant creams and lotions are emulsified
preparations containing low proportions of oils and fats so that the products do
not grease or soil clothing.
They contain high proportions of oily and fatty materials together with
emollients and are prepared either as oil-in-water or water-in-oils or in some
cases as mixed emulsions. When these products are applied to the skin the loss
of moisture is slowed down. These creams tend to be sticky and greasy but maybe
modified with fatty acid esters and acetylated glycerins, which have good
Colour: Colour in cosmetics are very important from the point of view of
consumer appeal. The term pigment generally denotes a coloured or white chemical
compound, which is insoluble in a particular solvent.
These are the products, which make it possible to unite aqueous and oily liquids
intimately. As the proportion of internal phase increases, the viscosity of the
emulsions increases to a point where the emulsion is no longer fluid.
Remover: All solvents particularly the fast evaporating types cause
dehydration and remove natural glasses from the nail.
It should have following properties:
Should convert human hair completely in 2 to 5 minutes to a soft, plastic
mass easily removed from the skin by wiping or rinsing.
Should be non-toxic systematically and on irritating to the skin even no
Should be easily applied, economical to use, and stable in the tube or
Should be cosmetically elegant, odorless or pleasantly perfumed, white or
neutral in colour, stainless to the skin and non-injurious to clothing.
Dyes: They should have following properties:
1. Non-irritating to the skin
2. They must be dry hair, not
3. They must produce shades
that are natural in appearance and lasting
Should not be injurious to hair and health
Dyeing should take reasonable time.
A good lipstick should have the following characteristics:
1. Ease of Application
and Shiny Appearance
3. Non-drying and
4. Good odour and flavour
firmness even under different climatic conditions.
6. Free from sweating or
Lacquers: These are based on nitrocellulose, which acts as a film former. A
good product should be quick drying, harden quickly, easy to apply, resistant to
abrasion and chipping and have good adhesion to the mail.
A good talcum powder should be white, possess good â€˜slipâ€™ and be
lustrous without being glittery.
A good shampoo is required to have the following properties:
It should remove soil and residues on
hair and scalp, should be pleasant and it should leave the hair in soft,
lustrous and easily manageable conditions.
Uses & Applications
Antidandruff: It controls the accumulation of
dandruff. It may be designed to be effective for message, stimulation or
cleansing and cosmetic care, it may contain an anti-infectious agent; or it may
contain nutritional agents.
& Deodorants: Deodorants are preparations which remove or decrease
perspiration odors or prevent their development or both.
Oils: Used for wiping the folds of the infants skin in the buttocks area,
with application of sterile oil to the skin at each diaper change.
Used for preventing a rough, dry skin and to treat this condition.
Removers: These are used to remove the enamel, without smudging or leaving a
lacquer residue on the nails or on the adjoining skin areas.
It is used for removal of unwanted hair or to prevent its regrowth.
Dye: To change the natural colour of the hairs, hair dye is used.
It is used to brighten the colour of the lips.
Lacquers: It is used to decorate and enhance the appearance of the nails
A face powder is a cosmetic product, which is applied to the face by means of a
powder puff. It is usually employed at the end of the make-up process, as a
finishing touch, either directly to the face, or over a powder base.
These are having some cleaning and foaming action, which leaves the hair soft,
lustrous and manageable.
In the modern world of new styles and varying fashions,
cosmetics play a vital role in beautification.
Particularly modern fashion conscious ladies and modern gents too, use
them considerably for a better get up in their personality appeal.
Now to cater to their outgrowing demand, the production in the cosmetic
industry is needed on a higher pedestal. Besides, the present demand, the future
prospects of this industry, too are very promising.
Thus, an adventurous entrepreneur can
safely pick up this industry and instantaneously procure prolific returns with a
smile on his face.
Raw Material Required
Salicylic Acid, Resorcinol,
Cetyl Alcohol, Alcohol.
Antiperspirants & Deodorants
Aluminium Chloride, Tegacid,
Spermaceti, Bees Wax, Magnesium Oxide, Water.
Aluminium Chloride, Aluminium
Sulphate, Borax, Water.
Hexachlorophene and perfume.
Sunflower Oil, Isopropyl
Linoleate, Cetyl Alcohol, Glyceryl Monostearate.
Ethyl Acetate, Water.
Boric Acid, Sodium Borate,
Phenyl Cetyl Alcohol, Rose Water.
Rosin, Beeswax, Carnauba Wax
and Mineral Oil.
Lead Acetate, Precipitated
Sulphur, Glycerol, Distilled Water.
Gum Tragacanth, Methyl Para
Hydroxy Benzoate, Rose Water perfume.
Carnauba Wax, Beeswax,
Lanolin, Cetyl Alcohol, Castor Oil.
Dibutyl Phthalate, Butly Acetate, Ethyl Alcohol, Butyl Alcohol, Toluene.
Kaolin, Calcium Carbonate,
Zinc Oxide, Zinc Stearate, Magnesium Carbonate, Perfume.
Sodium Lauryl Sulphate,
Steasric Acid, Lanolin, Caustic Soda, Cetyl Alcohol and Water
Tooth Paste and Powder
Dicalcium Phosphate, Sodium
Lauryl Sulphate, Glycerine, Propylene Glycol, Sodium Saccharin, Gum Tragacanth.
Precipitated Chalk, Sodium
Bicarbonate, Tricalcium Phosphate, White Powdered Caustic Soap, Saccharine,
Electric mixer is a motor driven appliance used for
processing/cooking food. It can perform functions like mixing, grinding,
blending, liquiding, kneading, mincing, juice extraction etc. It consists
essentially of a stand or pedestal to which a speed regulated electric motor is
fitted, a pair of food beaters, and a large bowl in which the food to be
processes is placed. In operation, the food is beaten or mixed by the revolving
beaters, which are attached to the motor and gear assembly. However, in
addition, most electrically operated mixers are designed to use other
attachments that lend themselves to the performance of various assignments, viz.
meat grinding, pea shelling etc, all of which serve to enhance the usefulness of
Electric mixer has become an
indispensable gadget for a house wife. Since it is a consumer durable item, it
must be beautiful to look and should give trouble free service. Due to the high
standard of living the demand for electric mixer is likely to increase. So there
is good scope for small entrepreneurs to start this industry.
Domestic electrical appliances are being produced in our country in large
numbers, which constitute almost the basic requirement of any family. It is easy
to handle quicker in service and keep the place like kitchen clean.
In pre-independence, the domestic electrical appliances were all being
imported from abroad and it was only after independence that with a definite
governmental backing of allowing the import of appliances only on restrict
basis, the industry has now been able to establish itself.
Electric mixers are now being manufactured by many small units and are
utilized by the middle and upper middle income group families in the country.
Domestic electric appliances can be manufactured by even tiny units since
the cost of capital involved in it can be really very low.
The process is highly labour intensive and as such as highly suited to
the small sector in the country.
Though there are hardly a few units in the organized sector for
manufacture of domestic electrical appliances, but the major growth of the
industry has taken place in the small scale sector. The small scale sector has,
therefore, been responsible to the market demand and have been manufacturing
varieties of domestic appliances as per the choice of the consumer.
The industry has high bright future not only for the internal market but
also for the export market.
As for the export prospects,
recognizing the export potentiality in electrical appliances industry, the Trade
Development Authority has included this item is their select list of products
for export to developing markets.