The Complete Technology Book on Soaps

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The Complete Technology Book on Soaps

Author: NIIR Board
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 8178330512
Code: NI110
Pages: 508
Price: Rs. 800.00   US$ 100.00

Published: 2004
Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
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Soaps are mainly used as surfactants for washing, bathing, and cleaning, but they are also used in textile spinning and are important components of lubricants. Soap is a mixture of sodium salts of various naturally occurring fatty acids. Air bubbles added to a molten soap will decrease the density of the soap and thus it will float on water. If the fatty acid salt has potassium rather than sodium, a softer lather is the result. Soap is produced by a saponification or basic hydrolysis reaction of a fat or oil. Currently, sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide is used to neutralize the fatty acid and convert it to the salt. The soaps industry is vivacious, varied, creative and tricky, and has the prospective to provide a gratifying career. Since these are basic requirements throughout the world undoubtedly the soap industry is one of the fastest growing and most profitable markets in international arena have been for the past many years. The experts based on the market analysis have predicted the soap industry to continue to grow in both the industrialized as well as developing nations. Apparently population growth, especially households with children has a proportional impact on the growth of the manufacturing sector of the industry. This means that rise in demand for soap production plants has been predicted in the clearest terms. Today the bar soap industry is thriving in much of the world, especially in the developing countries. There, toilet and laundry bar soaps are produced in large quantities, and many manufacturers exist beside the large multinational firms. In the rest of the world boutique soap manufacturers are producing elite bar soap for a select group of healthy conscious green consumers. Demand of foaming soap is increasing rapidly according to recent market research, something that is also spurning big developments in packaging solutions designed specifically for this purpose.
This book majorly deals with characteristics of soap, saponification of fats, reaction making soap, technology of soap manufacturing, saponification of distilled fatty acids, construction materials for soap making plants, various formulations of soaps, soap perfumery, plant and machinery, project estimation & its reliability etc.
Being consumable in daily life soap industry is profoundly lucrative with splendid market potential. This industry has very good future prospects. Many more new units are recommended to meet the requirement of Indians demand. The book covers formulae, processes of different type of washing and toilet soaps. It is very useful book for new entrepreneurs, technocrats and research laboratories, technical libraries and for those who wants to diversify into this field.

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Contents

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1. Introduction
Definition
Uses
Cleansing Mechanism
Characteristics of Soap
Saponification of Fats - The Basic Chemical
Reaction Making Soap

2. Raw Materials Oil and Fats
(The Main Raw Materials for Soaps)
Classification of Fats/Oils
Some of the Most Useful Fats and Oils
Tallow
Coconut Oil
Palm Oil
Palm Kernel Oil
Cottonseed Oil
Castor Oil
Chinese Vegetable Tallow
Corn Oil
Rice Bran Oil
Linseed Oil
Olive Oil
Groundnut Oil
Tall Oil
Mahua Oil
Babassu Oil
Neat's-Foot Oil
Lard
Greases
Fish Oil
Hydrogenated Oils
Purification of Soap Fats
Acid Washing
Alkali Refining
Bleaching
Absorbent Bleaching
Bleaching By Using Oxidizing Agents
Testing Of Soap Fats
Properties
Non Fatty Raw Materials For Soap
The Alkalis
Soap Builders
Filler
Stabilizers, Anti-oxidants
Other Additives (Foam Producers)
Foaming Agents Used in Soap
Solvents
Medicaments/Deodorants/Bacteriostatic Agents
Clarifiers
Colouring Matters
Preparation of Colours
Water Soluble
Oil Soluble
Alcohol Soluble
Milled Soaps
Full-boiled/Semi-boiled/cold-made Soaps
Soap Bases and Liquid Soaps
Washing/Laundry Soaps
Medicated Soaps
Perfumes
Comprehensive Details
Essential Oils
Isolates
Synthetic Chemicals

3. Fatty Acids
Types of fatty acids and their physical
properties
Physical properties of fatty acids
Melting point

Boiling point
Viscosity
Density
Solubilities
Refractive Index
Heat of crystallisation
Polymorphism
Fatty acids of oils and fats
Raw materials of fatty acids
Animal fats
Tall oil
Vegetable oils and soap stocks
Manufacture of fatty acids
Pretreatment of feed stock
Fat splitting
High pressure catalytic splitting
High pressure steam splitting
Continuous fat splitting
Refining of crude fatty acids
Distillation of fatty acids
Mazzoni fat splitting and distillation process
Distillation of crude fatty acid
Splitting
Distillation
Splitting plant using thermic fluid instead
of steams
Fractional distillation of fatty acids
Development trends in fatty acid distillation
Panning & pressing process
Solvent crystallisation process
Lurgi Wetting Method
Recovery of glycerine
Pre-treatment and evaporation of spent-lye
Pre-treatment and evaporation of sweet water
Distillation of crude glycerine
Synthesis of fatty acids

4. Manufacture of Soap Products
Health and safety Factors
Classification of Soap Products
Methods of Manufacture
Various Finishing Methods
Production
Full Boiling Process (Description)
The Process
First Stage
Second Stage
Third Stage
Fourth Stage
Fifth Stage
Washing Bar/Cake Soap From Neat Soap
Jet Saponification Process
Glycerine Recovery
Semi-Boiling Process and Cold-Made Process
General Description
Production of Washing Bar/Cake Soap
by Semi-Boiling/Cold-Made Process
Equipments
Process Operations
Examination of Cold-Made Products
Formulations for Washing Soaps
Washing Soap Using Soap Stock as Main
Fatty Raw Material
A Typical Batch
Toilet Soap
Milling Process
Floating Toilet Soap Cake
Manufacture of Toilet Soap by Semi-Boiled/
Cold-Made Process
Procedure
Alkali
Milled Finished Soap
A Typical Batch For Toilet Soap
Mottled Soap
Carbolic Acid Soap
Suggested Formulation
Procedure
Medicated Soaps
Castile Soap
Castile Soap by Boiling Process
Some Suggested Formulations for Castile Soap
Deodorant Soaps
Various Industrial Soaps
Textile Soaps
Laundry Washing Alds
A Fabric Cleaning Compound
Cotton Scouring Soap
Dry Cleaner's Soap
Water Softener
Jelly Soap/Soft Soap
Automobile Soap
Wire Drawing Soap
Scouring Soap
Preparation of Washing Soap Powder
Simplified Method
Powdered By Pulverising Method
Washing Powder by Spray-Crystallization
Soap Beads or Granules by Spray-Drying
Soap Flakes
Shaving Soaps
Procedure
Shaving Cream
Other Formulation
Brushless/Latherless Shaving Cream
Liquid Shaving Cream
Basic Combination
Thicker Cream
Aerosol Package
Liquid Soaps/Shampoos
Process of Manufacture
Equipments
Liquid Toilet Soap Concentrates
Liquid Washing Soap Concentrate
Shampoos
Classification
Physical States
Characteristics
Various Additives of Shampoos Imparting
Special Properties
Solubilizer
Opacifiers
Thickeners for Body or Viscosity
Foam Stabilizers
Conditioning Agents
Agents for Resistance of Hard-Water
Germicidal Agents
Preservatives
Soap Shampoos
Older Methods
Modern Methods
Some Typical Formulations
Shampoos Based on Synthetic Surfactants
General Formulations
Liquid Cream Shampoos and Paste Cream
Foamless Oil Shampoos
Baby Shampoos
Medicated Dandruff Shampoos
Other Miscellaneous Shampoos
Aerosol Shampoos (Pressure Dispersed)
Method of Continuous Saponification of Fats
by Alkali Solution
Method of Continuous Splitting of fats into
fatty Acids and Glycerol with Simultaneous
Neutralization of free fatty Acids with Alkali
Yielding Soap
Continuous Neutralization Process
Description of A Process
Advantages
Disadvantages
Continuous Neutralization Process using Fatty
Acids Instead of fats
Batch Methods of Splitting fats into fatty
Acids and Glycerol
Purification of Fatty Acids

5 Technology of Soap Manufacturing
Manufacturing Soap
Techniques
Saponification Equipments used by the
Small-scale sector
Equipment for batch soapmaking
Improved methods of saponification
Lye Absorption
Saponification Loop
Saponification of Distilled Fatty Acids
Alfa Laval Continuous Saponification
Washing of saponified soap
Staight washes
Counter current washes using a set of pans
Counter current washes in a single
divided pan
Rotating disc contactor (RDC)
Fitting of Soap
Method of Expressing Free Alkali, Chloride
and TFM
Plant for Total Soapmaking Operation
Construction Materials for Soapmaking Plants
Earth bleaching of oils
Chemical bleaching
Fatty acids
Lye treatment
Storage of raw lye
Output of Soap and Glycerine
Analysis of oils
Ester value of oils
Glycerine Recovery
Introduction
Glycerine Recovery Procedure
Purpose of Lye Treatment
Method of Lye Treatment
Treatment of Sweet Water
First treatment
Second treatment
Evaporation
Continuous Finisher
Refining of Crude Glycerine
Production of Laundry and Toilet Soaps
Introduction
Frame Cooling of Soap
Production of Filled Soaps on the Mazzoni
Billeting
Technology of Toilet Soaps
Introduction
Oil blend
Production of toilet soap
Mixing of soap
Preservatives
Perfumes
Colours
Opacifiers
Optical brightners
Super-fatting agent
Structurants
Bactericides and germicides
Miscellaneous additives
Design of mixers
Refiners vs. Mills
Plodding
Stamping
Wrapping
Packing
Carbolic Soap
Transparent Soaps
Introduction
Manufacturing methods
Manufacturing method
Translucent Soaps
Oil blend
Floating Soap
Marbled Soap
Process Control
Introduction
Pre-treatment of Raw Materials
Soapmaking
Fat charge control
Colour of soap base
Free alkali and chloride
Unsaponified fat
Glycerol in soap
Process Controls Beyond Pan Room:
Domestic Soap
Toilet Soap
Other Soaps
Soap Chips
Soap Noodles
Soap Flakes
Soap Powder for Laundries
Shaving Cream
Soft Soap
Medicated Soap
Shaving Soap

6 Various Formulations of Soaps
Toilet Soap of Inferior Quality
Process
Toilet Soap of Lux Type
Process
Khas Soap
Amla Soap
Rose Soap
Sandal Soap
Musk Soap
Almond Soap
Transparent Soaps
Process
Medicated Soaps
Stock Soap
Formulae and Process Description for
Various Medicated Soaps
Process
Carbolic Soap
Process
Procedure
Neem Soap
Process
Camphor Soap
Procedure
Chaulmogra Soap
Procedure
Shaving Soaps and Creams
Shaving Soaps
Solid Shaving Preparation
Lather Shaving Cream
Liquid Soaps and Shampoos
Process of Manufacture
Liquid Shampoos
Egg Shampoos
Herbal Shampoos
Washing Soap (Various Types)
Precautions regarding Manufacture of Soap
Nerol Washing Soap
Process
Soap Removal Procedure
Formulae for Nerol Soap

7 Soap perfumery
Soap compounds
Brown Windsor
Carnation
Chypre
Cologne
Cyclamen
Fougere
Heliotrope
Hyacinth
Jasmin
Lavender
Lilac
Lily

8 Management of Soap factories
Technical Efficiency
Introduction
Yield
Fatty acid yield
Glycerol yield
Active detergent yield
Over/under usage of materials
Packing loss/gain
Oil usage pattern
Scrap and downgrading losses
Productivity
Steam, water, electricity
Financial Summary
Pollution Control
Introduction
Source of Pollution
Oil spills
Chemical spills
Bleaching
Chemical treatment
Soap-making
Glycerine Recovery
Laundry Soaps
Toilet Soap
Synthetic Detergents
Sulphonation
Detergent powder manufacture
Boiler House
Coal spillages
Water treatment Section
Boiler Blow Down
Chimney exhaust
Boiler ash
Effluent Treatment
Space and location
Effluent characteristics
The requirements of treated effluent
Effluent treatment methodology
Treatment of Gaseous Effluents
Chemical bleaching
Saponification of oils
Toilet soap mixer
Refrigeration system
Oleum handling in the sulphonation plant
Oleum still furnace
Exhaust from spray drying tower and air lift
NSD bar mixer exhaust
Boiler exhaust
Analytical Support
Introduction
Oils
Chemicals
Packaging Materials
In-process Materials
Finished Products
Microbiological Controls
Analytical Equipments
General Comments
Quality Control
Introduction
Organisation
Facilities
Specifications
Chemicals
Packaging materials
Finished Product
Manufacturing Method
Fat Charge
Chemicals for soap-making
Sampling
Sampling of Raw Materials
Packing materials
Finished Products
Vendor education and rating
Process audit
Reporting
Micro-biological Controls
Bureau of Indian Standards Specifications
Quality Assurance
Introduction
Conventional Approach to Quality
Recommended Approach to Quality
Implementation of Quality Assurance
Quality Control
Quality Audit
Summary
Total Quality Management (TQM)
ISO 9000 Series Standards
Common Quality Problems of Soaps
Introduction
Laundry Soaps
Lather
Cracking
Detergency
Toilet Soaps
Base odour
Rancidity
Discoloration of soap
Cracking
Blisters
Sandiness
Mushiness
Wear
Hardness
Lather
Efflorescence
Storage and Product Assessment Tests
Storage
Product Assessment
Assessment in laundry soaps
Detergency
Lather
Perfume Impact
Wear
Cracking
Assessment of toilet soaps
Feel of soap in use
Mush
Common Quality Problems of Detergents
Detergent Powder
Solubility
Skin irritation
Poor lather/detergency
Detergent Cake
Sogginess
Roughness
Whitish deposit
Poor colour
Poor lather and detergency
Stain Removal
Introduction
Type of stains
Removal of Stains
Lime soap
Protein stains
Iron compounds
Stains due to dyes
Mildew stains
Physical methods of stain removal
Assessment of stain removal

9 Analytical Methods
Determination of Soap Composition
For Nature of Fatty acids in soap
For Anhydrous soap and total alkali content
Procedure
Isolation of Fatty Acids and Rosin Acid
From Soap
Acid Value
Sponification Value
The Saponification
Iodine Value
Wijs Solution (Iodine monochloride solution)
Determination
Titer Test
Procedure
Rosin Value
Procedure
Determination of Total Anhydrous Soap and
Combined Alkali Content
Procedure
Unsaponified and Unsaponifiable Matter
Determination
Testing of Fatty Oils used for Soap
Moisture and Volatile Matter
Insoluble Impurities
Soluble Mineral Matter
Determination of Total Fatty Acids of soap
stock and acidulated soap stock
Acid value
Ester value
Determination of rancidity
Rosin Test
Colour Test
Bleach Test
Smoke Point
Flash Point
Turbidity Point
Cloud Point

10 Plant and Machinery
Four Blades Chipping Machine
Other Chipping Machines
Packing Machine
Spray Drier for making Detergent Powder
Portal Stirrer (Mechanical Agitator)
High Speed Dissolver
Planetry Mixer
Centrifuge
Emulsifier
Edge Runners
Ball and Pebble Mills
Automatic Liquid Filling and Weighing Machine
Automatic Paste Filling and Crimping Machine
Automatic Power Filling Machine
Marking and Printing Machine
Marking and Printing Machine
Bottle Washing Machine
Ribbon Blender
Batch Mixer
Plodders
Cutters
Soap Press

11 Project Profiles
Project Estimation & its Reliability
Type of Project Estimate
Term Loan
Other Fixed Assets
Cost of Plant & Machinery
Building Costs
Building Costs
Subsidies
Incentives
Government/DIC/SIDc/FI's Equity Participation
Turn Over (P.A.)
Operating Profit
Depreciations
Interest
Break Even Point (B.E.P.)
Dog Soap
Depilatory Soap
Laundary Soap
Liquid Soap
Neem Soap (Medicated Soap)
Nerol Washing Soap
Sanitary Cleaner
Shaving Soap
Transparent Soap
Vaseline Soap
Vaseline Soap

Directory Section

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Sample Chapters


(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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VARIOUS FORMULATIONS OF SOAPS

Toilet Soap of Inferior Quality (Cold Process)

1
1.Coconut Oil12 Kg.2 Part
Soap Stone4-6 kg.4-6 Part
Water1.5 kg.1.5 Part
Soda Lye (35° Be)6.5 kg.6.5 Part
Colures1.5-3 gms.0.0015-0.003 Part
Perfumes5 gms.0.005 Part
Part
2.Coconut Oil10
Groundnut Oil10
Castor Oil 1
Soap Stone12
Water2.5
Soda Lye (35° Be)11
Colours0.005
Perfumes0.057
3.Coconut Oil10
Soap Stone Powder No. 15
Soda Lye (39° Be)5
Water1
Perfumes etc.0.057

Process

Soapstone is dissolved in the oil and is made homogeneous. Then, water is added in the lye and the mixture is poured in the soap kettle and stirring is done in well manner. After sometime when the whole mixture becomes homogenous, it is left for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes perfumery material is added and the slurry is filled in the frames and is covered by blankets. After 24 hours soap is taken out of the frame and is cut into tablets.

Toilet Soap of Lux TypePart
Coconut Oil20
Zinc Oxide0.456
Soda Lye (35° Be)10.5
Perfumes of Rose or Nargis 0.057
Musk Powder0.057

Process

Ground zinc oxide is dissolved in coconut oil and the solution is filtered. Now soda lime (lye) is added continuously. When soda lye in finish the solution is left for few minutes. Now perfumes are added as well as musk powder is also added. Now the slurry is filled in the frames and after setting, the soap is taken out of the frame and is cut according to requirement in the form of bars and tablets.

Khas SoapPart
Coconut Oil10
Soda Lye N° (35° Be)5.325
Perfume Khas, Soap Perfumes0.057
Green Colour0.0001
Water0.5

Process-Cold Process.

Amla Soap Part
Coconut Oil10
Soda Lye N° 35°5.325
Water0.5
Green Colour0.0001
Amla Soap Perfumes0.057

Process-Cold Process.

Rose SoapPart
Coconut Oil10
Soda Lye (35° Be)5.325
Pink Co lour0.00005
Rose Perfumes0.057
Water0.5

Process-Cold Process.

Sandal SoapPart
Coconut Oil10
Soda Lye N°(35°)5.3125
Yellow Co lour0.0001
Water0.5
Rogan (Oil) Sandal0.057
or Sandal Soap Perfumes0.085

Process-Cold Process.

Musk SoapPart
Coconut Oil10
Soda Lye N°(39° Be)5
Musk Powder (Artificial Musk)0.085-0.114
Almond SoapPart
Coconut Oil9
Castor Oil1
Benzaldehyde or Almond Perfume0.029
Soda Lye (35° Be)5.325
Water0.25
Yellow Colour0.0002

Process-Cold Process.

Besides these above-mentioned formulae numerous formulae can be prepared. Perfumes formulae described previously may guide to change the toilet soap variety.

TRANSPARENT SOAPS

Transparent soaps may be prepared in several ways. One of the oldest methods is to dissolve a good quality soap in alcohol by the aid of gentle heat and then distill off about 80 per cent of the alcohol and run the transparent liquid soap into moulds. This method is expensive but good. Ways of economising have been found by making addition of sugar, castor oil and glycerine during the process for ordinary good quality millings. In the former methods of manufacture,s a necessary prerequisite for success is a first class milling base. Such a raw material is more easily and satisfactorily converted from crystalline to the colloidal state which is really the essence of the process. There is of course no necessity to use duty paid ethyl alcohol, a good quality industrial spirit, pure methyl alcohol or even iso-propyl alcohol to yield good results. The moisture content of the milling chips is important for the higher this, is the less transparent and brilliant is the finished tablet. Drying should be conducted at a fairly low temperature so that a good colour preserves. The moisture content should at the completion of this process not exceed 5 per cent. For such hundred weight of soap, a 20 gallon jacketed still having stirring apparatus and bottom and side exits is necessary. It is preferable two, employ to one for solution of the soap in the alcohol and the other for recovery of the latter. The recovery kettle should be shallow to allow a large evaporating surface. The temperature is usually about 75°C. The quality of alcohol necessary for solution varies according to the soap used and to the skill of the operator. One hundred weights of chips will in one case require 19 to 23 litres of spirit while in another as much as 38 litres will be necessary. Settling or the dissolved soap demand careful attention and may require upto six hours. The clear supernatant solution is run off in the recovery kettle from the side exit and the residues withdrawn from the bottom for further treatment. The addition of glycerine at this stage in the process is general. The quantity should be kept low owing to its hygroscopic nature. I or 2 percent is sufficient and will aid transparency, more than this will produce tackiness and a dull finish. The temperature is now maintained at 75°C and sometimes slightly increased until 75 or 80 percent of the added alcohol has been recovered. This depend upon how firm the soap will set and experimental tests are made from time to time ensure success. The kettle is allowed to cool and then the perfume and any co lour in clear solution are added. The liquid soap is now run out into narrow frames or bar moulds and subsequently cut to the size necessary for stamping. Shrinkage will of course occur as the past traces of alcohol evaporate, but this is generally allowed before cutting. A skilled operator will have adjusted this process so that brilliant transparency and hardness are secured within few days of manipulations.

Some years ago a percent was taken out by S.P. Villain for the preparation of transparent soap having a high perfume content by the use of a soluble form or derivative of cellulose. This is alleged to form a film coating on the surface of the soap which prevents deterioration of the perfume.

When buying soap chips, it is usually advisable to send the contract samples to competent analyst for report. The following physical characteristics should also be noticed-co lour, dampness, odors and taste. The first quality chips are generally white, the second slightly creamy, the third darker, and the fourth and fifth brownish. For an average good sample of toilet soap, a mixture fourth and fifth brownish. For an average good sample of toilet soap a mixture of equal parts of Nos. 1 and 2 are excellent. Many firms however rely entirely on No. 2 for first quality toilet soap and a mixture in equal parts of 2 and 3 for lower grades. A damp has is more difficult to mill than a normal sample. It is better to buy on the dry side and add the necessary quantity of water during mixing and prior to milling. The first quality chips are practically odorless; the second and third grades have a slight odors reminiscent of traces of paracresol methyl ether. The lower grades have sometimes quite a strong smell. They can only be used in colored soaps, but owing to the larger quantity of perfume necessary to cover the odors, it generally pays in the long run to buy a better grade base and less perfume. It is soap tastes salty, it should be discarded since it will crack after plodding and soon become unsaleable. When an analyst's report is obtained, the fatty acid content and percentage of free alkali or free fat should be noted. Absolute neutrality is very seldom found, but it is better to have traces of free fat. The latter soon jurn the soap rancid and the quantity of perfume used becomes prohibitive. Free alkali is prone to effect the perfume by the decomposition of estes, etc. This may be counteracted to some extent by the addition of lanoline (about 1 percent) and the use in the perfume of gum resin such as storox. A dark coloured base can be much improves by the addition of 0.5 to 1 percent of Zinc or Titanium dioxide. The two formulae are described hereunder.

Part
1. Stearic Acid50
Coconut Oil110
Castor oil40
Caustic soda lye (No. 20) 100
Methylated spirit120
Crystal sugar40
Glycerine40
Safranine dyeq.s.
Total500

Process

Melt the first three constituents and stir in caustic soda. Allow to stand for few days. Now add spirit to dissolve the soap and heat to 130° to 160°F, till a transparent liquid is obtained. Saponification is complete by this time. To recover the alcohol distillation of alcohol may be conducted in stills provided with suitable condensors. Finally add the sugar dissolved in 30.3 litres of water and glycerine. Add the colour and perfumes if necessary and crutch well. Put into frames, slab bar and place for some time in cool dark room. The alcohol then evaporates gradually. The soap hardens and becomes perfectly transparent.

Part
2.Tallow (pure)8
Coconut oil8
Castor oil6
Soda lye (No. 35) 12
Water1.5
Sugar (crystalline)9
Rectified spirit6
Colour0.0066
Total50.5066

Process

Semi-Boiled Process.

For the manufacture of transparent soap, the economic consideration will be of the same type as in the case of toilet soaps given in previous chapter.

MEDICATED SOAPS

The process of manufacturing medicated soaps is very simple. First of all, an ordinary soap-stock is prepared in the usual way and into this is worked by means of crutcher, or by the milling process the substance which imparts the special properties to the soap. To prepare stock soap of good quality, proceed is follows:

STOCK SOAP

Coconut Oil[ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ] [ ]900 Part

Caustic soda lye (10° Be)[ ][ ][ ][ ][ ] [ ][ ][ ]600 Part

Boil the soda lye in a porcelain vessel gradually and the oil without stopping the heat. When the mixture becomes smooth, add 375 part of caustic soda lye No. (20° Be). The mass becomes thicker after few minutes, the heating is stopped when a small sample solidifies on cooling. About 1/3 part of water is then added when the soap will separate and rise to the surface. The mixture is then cooled, the water poured off, the mass mixed twice with a 20 percent salt solution and finally with cold water. The water is allowed to drain off in a hair sieve and the mass pressed to remove the excess of water.

The soap so obtained is in the form of paste, which is brought to a suitable consistency by a very moderate heat in a drying oven, in order to leanable the selected medicament to be incorporated, after which, the soap is pressed into tablets and dried at a temperature from 30° to 35°C.

Formulae and Process Description for Various Medicated Soaps

1.Sulphur SoapPart
Coconut Oil11
Castor Oil1
Soda Lye No. 356.375
Sulphur Flowers0.456
Methylated Spirit0.600
Colour0.00285
Water0.250

Process

Sulphur flower is dissolved in the spirit. Now it is mixed with oil. Colour is dissolved in water and mixed with caustic lye. Now soda lye is added to oil mixture. Continuous but slow stream provided with the agitator to the mixture. After the addition of whole lye, the whole mixture is left for few minutes and then run into frames which becomes solid after about 24 hours. Sulphur may be added directly to the soap slurry in fine powdered form.

2.Carbolic SoapPart
Coconut Oil9
Castor Oil1
Soda Lye No. 355.312
Carbolic Acid0.228
Colour (Red or Pink)0.0015
Water0.5
Oil Colour0.0029

(Life Buoy Type)

Part
1.Coconut Oil20
Groundnut Oil24
Castor Oil4
Rosin2
Soda Lye No. 3526
Water2
Carbolic Oil½
Kiryajot Oilq.s.
Colour Redq.s.

Process

Full-Boiled Process

/2
Part
1. Coconut Oil24
Tallow (pure)20
Castor Oil6
Rosin2
Soda Lye No.3621
Carbolic Oil1
Kiryajot Oilq.s.
Colourq.s.

Process

Full-Boiled Process

Procedure

Colour is dissolved in water and then add soda lye which in turn is added to the oil slowly and stirring of the mixture is carried out continuously. After adding the whole lye to the oil, it is kept as it is for some time. Now carbolic acid is added and the slurry is filled in the frames for setting. Process remains the cold process.

3.Neem Soap

Part
Coconut Oil8
Castor Oil1
Oil Neem2
Soda Lye No.355.75
Colour (green)0.004

Process

Cold Process.

4.Camphor Soap

Part
Stock Soap10
Methylated Spirit0.75
Camphor0.5

Procedure

Stock soap is melted over slow fire. Camphor is dissolved in the spirit and added to the molten soap stock with vigorous stirring. When the mixture becomes homogeneous it is filled into moulds.

5. Chaulmogra Soap

This soap is made especially for controlling and avoiding the skin diseases.

Part
Coconut Oil20
Castor Oil2
Neem Oil1
Chaulmogra Oil3
Casutic Soda Lye No.36 Be.15
Green Soap Colourq.s.
Ichthyol0.500

Procedure

If oil is in solid or lumpy form, it is put on furnace in soap kettle for melting. Now as in the cold process, lye is added in a thin stream. Now ichthyol is added with stirring. As the mass becomes concentrated it is filled into frames for setting.

For the manufacture of medicated soap of any variety's everything is same as in manufacture of toilet soaps, except the addition of disease relieving compounds. So far establishing a factory of medicated soap, capital investment will be the same as in the case of toilet soap.

SHAVING SOAPS AND CREAMS

Shaving Soaps

Shaving soap differs from toilet soap essentially in that saponification is generally effected with potash as well as soda lye, and further that absolute neutrality must be obtained in the finished article to prevent irritation. A creamy and lasting lather is very important. The raw material must be of the finest and consist principally of tallow and coconut oil together with small quantity of lard oil, castor oil and lanolin.

There are many forms in which shaving preparations are available.

These are available in the form of solid, liquid, powdered, stick, free flowing liquid leather cream and aerosol.

From the viewpoint of technology, solid shaving soaps and leather creams are somewhat similar products in the method of their functioning as well as in their composition.

A shaving product in any form that it is to be used must conform to certain specification in order to aid the shaver. It must be non-irritating to the face and must retain its moisture during the time that it remains as the face even of a slow shaver. It must soften the beard sufficiently so that the razor cuts readily or must retain the softening effect of soap and water.

The shaving preparation should provide lubricity so that the razor can glide easily along the face, and it should be of sufficient viscosity to hold the individual hair erect. In addition, the product should remain stable over a wide temperature range.

SOLID SHAVING PREPARATION

A bar shaving soap resembles an ordinary bar toilet soap. But there is a vital difference between the two. The chief difference between the two products is found in materials used. In shaving soap, potassium hydroxide replaces all or part of the sodium hydroxide.

A bar or cake shaving soap can be made according to formula 1. In the manufacture of any solid shaving soap, the perfume is best incorporated during milling process.

1.Bar or cake shaving soap.

Toilet soap from Cattle50.00%
Coconut Oil Manila5.00
Stearic acid10.00
Caustic soda2.30
Sp. Gravity1.5
Caustic potash, Specific gravity 1510.00
Antioxidant0.05
Water2.65

The solid shaving soap or cake may be manufactured in one of the several ways. It usually consist of a mixture of tallow and coconut oil soaps, to which a certain amount of potash soap is added. It can be made entirely in a soap crutcher using a mixture of sodium and potassium hydroxide.

LATHER SHAVING CREAM

A lather shaving cream may be defined as solution of soap in glycerol and water in which excess solid soap may be dispersed. The cream should be low in potassium chloride. Borax is a valuable additive but the amount of borax must be very closely controlled.

The most desirable shaving cream is one which will not change its viscosity over a wide range of temperature.

Potassium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of lather creams. The ratio of potassium hydroxide to sodium hydroxide is one of many critical factors that affect the physical form and stability of the cream. One of the most important raw materials for lather cream is stearic acid. For the preservation of cream, it is usually advisable to add a small percentage of oil antioxidant although there are formulations in which an ontidant is unnecessary.

Phenolic compounds with long side chains have proved very successful as an antioxidants.

2. Formulation

Stearic acid35.0%
Coconut oil10.0%
Potassium hydroxide6.1%
Sodium hydroxide2.0%
Glycerol8.0%
Water37.4
Additive1.5
Boric acid-
Stearine-
Perservativeqs.
Perfumeqs.

Italics. After the saponification of the stearic acid and the coconut oil add the remainder of the strearic acid and also add such special ingredients as lanolin and the antioxidant. Heat the glycerol, boric acid and half of the total water required to 65°C, mix and run slowly into the crutcher, stirring until the creamy paste is uniform. Heat the remaining water to 44°C and add as fast as the cream will absorb it.

LIQUID SOAPS AND SHAMPOOS

Sometimes these are also called soap-essence. For public room, liquid soaps are more economical than cake-soap. These provide better rinsing than the cake or powdered soap.

The main difference between liquid soap and hard soap is that the former is saponified with caustic potash and the latter with caustic soda. When suitable oils are used, caustic potash produces a soap that will give a rich lather in low concentrations.

Due to its chemical and physical properties, coconut oil is used extensively in making liquid soaps, especially if a rich lathering soap is desired. However, it is suggested that the coconut oil is not be used alone, but in combination with other oils, since it tends to produce soaps which are too fluid and somewhat irritating to the skin. Linseed oil and palm-kernel oil are not recommended for liquid soaps, since they tend to produce disagreeable odors, which cannot be masked readily with perfume. Groundnut oil in small percentages has been used to make coconut oil soap softer and reduces the lather. Corn oil upto 30 percent is common. Castor oil upto 20 percent of the fat mixture can be used safely.

Process of Manufacture

Coconut oil is heated upto 50°C in the boiling pan, and then caustic potash lye of 50°Be and then water is added with stirring. Saponification may start in ten or fifteen minutes, and it is necessary to note that the pan does not boil over. It may be necessary to sprinkle cold water over the surface of the mass to keep it from forming over the top of the pan. After saponification, the soap should be tested for free alkali, which if present is neutralised with correct amount of fatty acid. If there is insufficient potassium hydroxide present, the soap is adjusted with lye. The finished product may be alkaline to the extent of about 0.05 percent free alkali.

A 50-55 percent soap product results by this method and it is diluted with hot, softened water to the desired concentration. When making a 40 percent total solid liquid soap, 0.03 to 0.05 percent free caustic potash will help the soap say, clear in cold weather, and will also allow a finished product of slightly higher concentration which will not jell readily, as would be the case if this grade of soap is absolutely neutral.

After liquid soap has been made up, it is transferred to storage tanks. When the soap has become thoroughly clear, it may be siphoned from the top, off through a fancet six to twelve inches above the bottom. Sediments should be flushed out of the tanks periodically. If the mass remain cloudy, one or two percent kieselguhr or talcum may be added. The clear soap may also be separated by filtering. Finally, it is packed into suitable containers.

Liquid Shampoos

When a shampoo is based upon soap, it is frequently a potassium salt of the fatty acid. If it is based on a synthetic, it is often a triethanol-amine salt. Liquid shampoos are generally prepared from sulphonated oil and are promoted as oil shampoos. In these formulations, mineral oil may be added to the shampoos, as it does not rinse out readily, remaining as a dressing on the hair. Liquid shampoos are very popular as they are easy to apply. When well formulated, they give excellent foaming and are easy to rinse.

Egg Shampoos

While originally, egg shampoos were composed only of egg. There has been a recent promotion of a number of shampoos which are bases either upon soap or upon a synthetic detergent to which some egg powder had been added. Soap shampoos have been marketed that contains some 20-30% of whole egg. However, there has been no evidence to show that this large proportion of egg improves the quality of the shampoo or the appearance of the hair. In any event, there is little doubt that the cleansing action of these shampoos with egg added is due primarily to the soap or the synthetic detergent present in the formulations. It is also certain that the addition of egg has an excellent sales promotion value for use on dry type of hair.

Herbal Shampoos

These products have a very limited demand although formerly they had a market in hard water area. Quillaja saponaria is one of whole class of saponins widely distributed in nature. Commercially, saponin is usually extracted with water and alcohol from the Quillaja bark or from soap root.

WASHING SOAP (VARIOUS TYPES)

Although the basic principal of soap manufacture is the same that any alkali reacting with an oil or fat yields soap, yet, with different raw materials and processes (cold process, semi-boiled and full-boiled process) several types of washing soap may be manufactured.

As now-a-days fats and oils are dearer, the soap industry requires other non-conventional raw materials and at least they require raw material composition at the optimum cost with better quality.

Generally for the manufacture of washing soap, fat-oil mixture is melted in the pan or soap-kettle. To it, correctly weighted quantity of caustic soda lye is added gradually. The temperature is kept generally at 35°C. The whole mass is continuously stirred, with small wooden rod if it is small scale process and with metal stirrer attached to the soap kettle. The stirring is continues till all the lyes are in and until the mixture thickens to the consistency of trade. This condition would be attained generally in the course of quarter to half and hour. If the temperature of the oils is not above 90°C, it will take much longer for the contents to thicken and in may cases, the constituent, may not combine at all, but separate into two distinct layers of oil and caustic lye.

If the fatty materials are rancid and contain free fatty acids, there is the risk of the caustic soda lye seizing upon the free acids in preference to the neutral oil and forming hard lumps of soap. Side by side with these will be neutral oil and the free caustic entangled in these lumps thereby preventing a thorough and satisfactory combination of all the materials and the resultant product will be irregular and imperfect. Excessive stirring is also to be avoided as it tends to break up the emulsion and the mixture will not set in the frames.

When the mixture of oil and caustic lye thickens it should be ladled out into the frames where saponification proceed vigorously, the temperature of the mixture rising to about value saponification should be complete within 24 hours (and in some cases less than 6 hours). Saponified mixture is kept in cool and dark place in the frames covered by bags or old blanket in order to encourage saponification. The soap will be quite hard and ready for cutting on the third day after it is made, if taken out early it will be hot and soft.

Some Formulae for Washing Soap

Part
1.Oil Mahua17
Flour fine3
Coconut Oil2
Common Salt1.25 Castor Oil1 Soda Lye N° 35°10 Water20
Total54.25

Process: (Full-boiled Process) Oil or fats are run into the soap kettle and are warmed. Now flour-fine is added and stirred well so that there would be no grainy substance in the pan. Salt is dissolved in water and is added to the soda grainy substance in the pan. Salt is dissolved in water and is added to the soda lye and this soda-lye salts solution is added to the warmed up oil at once and stirring is carried out vigorously. The mixture is left for boiling and is stirred sometimes in between. After about one or one and half an hour, the mixture becomes concentrated and it is again agitated well so that any oil left is consumed. Now the mixture is fed to the frames which is kept in cool and dark places usually. After setting, the soap is taken out of the frames and is slashed into piece as required.

2. Bar Soap

Part
Coconut Oil6.5
Castor Oil1
Rosin1/2
Soda Lye N° 35°4.25
Water0.5
ColoursL.S.
Total12.75

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

Part
3. GroundNut Oil 3.5
Rosin0.5
Coconut Oil4
Castor Oil00.5
Soda Lye N° 35°4.5
Water0.5
Total13.05

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

Part
4.Palm Oil or Tallow10
Coconut Oil5
GroundNut Oil5
Castor Oil2
Rosin1
Soap Stone 5
Soda Silicate5
Soda Lye N° 35°11.5
Water0.5
Total45.0

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

5.Bar Soap of Cheaper Class

+
Part
Palm Oil or Tallow 6
GroundNut Oil5
Castor Oil1
Rosin0.5
Coconut Oil4
Soda Lye N° 35°8
Soda Silicate20
Water0.5
Perfume & colourq.s
Total45.0

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

Part
6. GroundNut or Seasame Oil13
Mahua, Tallow or Palm Oil13
Coconut Oil4
Castor Oil2
Soda Lye N° 36°16
Soda Silicate10
Soap Stone10
Total68.0

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

3
Part
7.Mahua, Palm Oil or Tallow1
GroundNut or Sesamum Oil10
Castor Oil3
Coconut Oil5
Rosin2
Soap Stone Fine Quality8
Soda Silicate12
Soda Lye N°-36°17
Total70.0

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

Part
8.Mahua, Oil or Tallow7
GroundNut or Cottonseed Oil12
Coconut Oil3
Castor Oil2
Rosin2
Soda Lye N°-36°14
Soda Silicate13
Soap Stone13
Total66.0

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

Part
9.Mahua, Palm Oil or Tallow8
Cotton Seed Oil or Linseed Oil or GroundNut Oil 4
Rosin2
Castor Oil1
Coconut Oil1
Soap Stone N°-19
Water2
Common Salt or Washing Soda0.75
Soda Lye N°-36°9
Total36.75

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

10.Mahua Oil or Tallow8
Neem Oil4
Rosin2
Coconut Oil1
Castor Oil1
Soap Stone8
Soda Silicate10
Soda Lye N°-36°8.5
Salt or Washing Soda1
Water2.5
Total46.0

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

Total 69.5
Part
11.Cotton Seed or Linseed Oil8
Tallow or Mahua Oil8
Coconut Oil1
Rosin1
Soda Lye N°-36°11
Common Salt1
Water2.5
Soda Silicate12
Soap Stone25

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

Part
12.Mahua Oil or Tallow9
Coconut Oil1
Rosin1
Castor Oil1
Soap Stone12
Soda Silicate12
Soda Lye N°-35°6
Total42

Process-Semi-Boiled Process.

Part
13.Coconut Oil9
Mahua Oil or Tallow or Palm Oil9
Castor Oil2
Soda Lye 36°11
Soda Washing1
Soda Silicate10
Soap Stone5
Water5
Total52

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

Part
14.Mahua Oil or Tallow7.5
Coconut Oil1.5
Castor Oil3.0
Soda Lye N°-36°6.75
Washing Soda1
Water5
Soap Stone10
Soda Silicate8
Total42.75

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

Part
15.Mahua Oil or Tallow7
Coconut Oil1
Castor Oil2
Common Salt1
Water4
Soda Lye N°-36°6
Soap Stone12
Soda Silicate10
Total43.0

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

Part
16.GroundNut Oil or Cotton Seed Oil or Linseed Oil20
Rosin4
Coconut Oil4
Castor Oil2
Mahua Oil or Tallow10
Soda Silicate35
Soda Lye N°-36°20
Total95.0

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

Part
17.Cotton Seed or GroundNut Oil7
Castor Oil1
Coconut Oil1
Mahua Oil or Tallow3
Rosin1
Soda Lye N°-36°6
Soda Silicate18
Total37.0

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

Part5
18.Cotton Seed Oil or GroundNut Oil4
Castor Oil1
Coconut oil1
Mahua Oil or Tallow6
Rosin0.5
Soda Lye N°-36°6
Soda Silicate24
Total42.

Process-Full-Boiled Process.

Part
19.GroundNut or Cotton Seed Oil6
Mahua Oil or Tallow4
Castor Oil1
Coconut Oil1
Soap Stone4
Soda Silicate3
Water1
Flour-Fine2
Soda Lye N°-36°6.5
Total28.5

Process-Cold Process.

Part
20.Cotton Seed or GroundNut Oil5
Mahua Oil or Tallow4
Castor Oil1
Coconut Oil2
Soda Silicate4
Soap Stone4
Flour-Fine1.5
Salt0.750
Water4.000
Soda Lye N°-36°7
Total33.25

Process-Cold Process.

Part
21.Washing Soap for Washing Silken, Woolen or Cotton Clothes Sajji5
Lime2.5
Water21
Soap Stone Powder1
Seasame10
Total39.5

22. Washing Soap specially for Silken Clothes

Part
Washing Soda5
Lime2.5
Water21.0
Coconut Oil5
Seasame5
Soda Bicard0.5
Crystalline Sugar1.0
Total40.0

Precautions regarding Manufacture of Soap

[ol]
  • Raw materials such as oils, fats, alkalis and other auxiliary materials whichever be undergoing use must be pure individually.
  • Goggles should be used during the soap preparation because soda lye may harm the eyes.
  • Every constituent should be used in its exact proportion.
  • Soap concentrate should run into frames only after complete saponification.
  • Besides Mahua oil, tallow, Castor oil, Neem oil, Rosin and Palm also make the soap concentrate denser and hard. Diluting oils are coconut oil, groundnut oil, cotton seed oil, mustard oil, linseed oil and seasame oil. The ratio of hard and soft oil should be 60:40 during use, although it may not be true for the soaps using salt, flour-fine and water.
  • Silicate soap concentrate should fill in the frames only when it is fully saponified and is dense otherwise, silicate may be filtered out of the soap.
  • If soap concentrate be harder, it should not be filled into the frames, but is boiled with additional water so that the concentrate would be homogenous enough for forming.
  • Coconut oil gives good and creamy lather to the soap. So one-tenth to one-fifth part of the oil should be coconut oil in the manufacture of soap.
  • Castor oil yields brightness to the soap so it should be used in the ratio of 1/8 to 1/10 of the total oil content.
  • Aluminium or zinc should not be used as the metal of construction because soap or alkali easily corrode these metals.
  • Silicates must not be dissolved in either the salt water or washing soda water.
  • [/ol]

    NEROL WASHING SOAP

    "Nerol soaps" are used mostly for washing clothes. This soap is manufactured by full-boiled process. This process is better than cold process and it is in practice in most of the soap factories.

    Process

    Pour water in the soap-boiling pan. Then pour mahua oil and acid oil in it and heat the mixture. When oil and water boil thoroughly, weights the required amount of lye and add it in small amount to the soap making pan and stir well. Boil it for about half an hour. In this way, add half of the lye in the mixture into the pan. The remaining half of the lye should be added four times at intervals of half an hour.

    Every time when the lye is added, it should be mixed with a wooden ladle into the oil mixture. Boil it thoroughly till the oil mixture bursts and a layer of water and soap is seen separately. Now, take out a small sample of soap mass with the iron spade and make a cake by this sample to know its preparation. We can see the drops of water floating separately over the soap layer. This soap layer is taken out with an iron spade and the nerol soap is ready. Put off the fire in the furnace and transfer the soap mixture into a waterpro of storage tank. The lye that is visible below the surface of the soap layer should also be poured into the tank along with the soap. When the saponification process begins, stir it with a wooden ladle so that that there may be adhesion into the soap.

    Now there are three separate layers of the mixture. The upper layer is lighter. The soap in the second layer is heavy and adhesive. The lye mixed in third layer is of middle quality. It contains a mixture of lye, water etc, in which the percentage of caustic soda lye is in greater proportion. The lighter or swollen soap of the upper layer into it. After three days, observe the state of the soap in the tank. It will solidify during this time. Then it should be taken out from the tank, otherwise it should be washed thoroughly.

    Generally, in small soap factories about 2-quintal nerol soap is prepared in one batch. The reason being that the tank used is generally of this capacity. The nerol solidifies in this tank. The size of the tank is generally 11.5 × 17.5 × 45.0 cm. This has 2-quintal capacity.

    Soap Removal Procedure

    To remove the soap layer from the above tank, a knife of about 22.5 cm length is generally used. Three equal marks are made in breadth-wise over the layer of soap by the above knife. Then these marks are sub-marked with a long wooden footrule. These sub-marks are drawn to gain the previous marks. Now the width of the soap layer has been divided into three equal parts. Now a long smooth stick is placed over these lines and in this way the slabs are separated from each other.

    Formulae for Nerol Soap

    Parts
    1.Acid Oil36
    Mahua Oil36
    Caustic Soda lye 50°Be24
    Water27

    Nerol Washing Soap (White)

    Parts
    2.Coconut Oil10
    Groundnut Oil10
    Acid Oil10
    Mahua Oil10
    Caustic Soda lye 40°be'20
    Water25
    Parts
    3.Mahua Oil10
    Palm Oil10
    Acid Oil20
    Caustic Soda lye 39°be'20
    Water10
    Salt1
    Parts
    4.Mahua Oil10
    Acid Oil15
    Rice Bran Oil15
    Neem Oil Panner (grained soap made from neem oil)15
    Caustic Soda Lye 40°Be'20
    Water20
    Salt1

    For all the formulae, the procedure of manufacture is the same as described in the beginning.

    Parts
    5.Coconut Oil4
    Mahua Oil34
    Castor Oil2
    Fine Flour6
    Common Salt2.5
    Soda Lye N°-35'20
    Water40
    Soap Stone8

    Process-Full-Boiled Process.

    Parts
    6. Coconut Oil12
    Mahua Oil12
    Flour Fine12
    Sodium Carbonate1.5
    Common Salt3
    Sodium Silicate6.5
    Soda Lye N°-35'14.5
    Water24

    Process-Full-Boiled Process.

    Parts
    7. Coconut Oil8
    Mahua Oil 8
    Common Salt2
    Water16
    Soda Lye N°-35'10
    Flour Fine8
    Caustic Soda1

    Process-Semi-Boiled Process

    Parts
    8.Coconut Oil4
    Mahua Oil20
    Seasame Oil8
    Flour Fine8
    Common Salt2
    Soda Lye N°-35'18
    Caustic Soda1
    Water24

    Process-Semi-Boiled Process.

    Parts
    9.Mahua Oil or Tallow or Palm Oil24
    Soda Lye N°-35'12
    Water12

    Process-Full-Boiled Process.

    Parts
    10.Mahua Oil or Tallow or Palm Oil17
    Castor Oil1
    Coconut Oil2
    Soda Lye N°-35'10
    Water10

    Process-Full-Boiled Process.

    0
    Parts
    11.Mahua Oil or Tallow30
    Groundnut or Seasame Oil1
    Soda Lye N°-35'20
    Water20

    Process-Full-Boiled Process.

    Parts
    12.Mahua Oil or Tallow10
    Coconut Oil2
    Seasame or Groundnut Oil8
    Soda Lye N°-35'10
    Water10

    Process-Full-Boiled Process.

    Parts
    13.Mahua Oil or Palm Oil40
    or Tallow (or in Mixture) Soda Lye N°-35' 26
    Water80

    Process-Full-Boiled Process.

    Parts
    14.Tallow24
    Cotton Seed Oil16
    Soda Lye N°-35'26
    Water80

    Process-Full-Boiled Process.

    Parts
    15.Tallow24
    Palm Oil10
    Rosin6
    Common Salt1
    Soda Lye N°-35'24.7
    Water80

    Process-Full-Boiled Process.

    Parts
    16.Mahua Oil or Tallow24
    Neem Oil16
    Soda Lye N°26
    Water80

    Process-Full-Boiled Process.


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